To many, the United States led invasion of Afghanistan to topple Taliban's rule of the country were seen as aggression designed to get back to the international terrorist who staged the 9/11 attacks on Twin Towers of New York World Trade Center. But studying the background of the Talibans even the more objective mind might justly the US led coalition action against Afghanistan. First, it has become the breeding ground for international terrorist who do no have regard at all to human life, human rights and human dignity. As a matter of fact, even Afghan citizens particularly women were victims of bodily abuses, economic deprivation and injustice, corruption and so forth.
This paper deals with the historical and cultural concept and influence of tribalism in their country, as well as its effect in the rise of the world's perception that Afghanistan is becoming a Narco State.
In 1960s, Afghanistan was monarchial with the king and his relatives "dominated the central government," according to Microsoft Encarta. But in 1963, a prime minister was appointed for the first time outside the "royal family in order to distance the monarchy from policy-making" (Encarta). However, the administration of the new prime minister had experienced many conflicts; a series of coup ahs brought into power the Mujahidin Government.
According to report made by Afghanistan Assessment, the new government is faced with "immense economic problems, including serious food and fuel shortages, a collapsed industrial sector, a severely damaged infrastructure, the difficulties of refugees returning to their ravaged farms and field studied with mines and high inflation." Prior to the 1973 Coup d' etat, Afghanistan has been beneficiaries from both East and West; both the United States of America and the Soviet Union built an international air part in Kabot and Kandahar respectively. But the 1973 coup d' etat had not only had some effect on Afghanistan but also foreign powers' attitude to domestic and political forces in Afghanistan.
When the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in December 1979, the Soviet installed Karmal as President, yet his regime was continuously plagued by civil wars, and constantly disrupted by anti-government guerilla forces; the Mujahiden depriving the government of authority over large areas of the countryside. Though poorly armed at first, they soon began to receive supplies mainly from Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, the United States of America and China, which later helped them overthrow the existing government.
According to Mohsen Makhmalbaf, during the early years, Afghanistan was "ruled by tribes." These tribes had each leader that a single leader coming from one tribe may not be acceptable. So they formed Tribal Federalism known as "loya Jirga." Makhmalbaf stressed that since then until now, "a more just and appropriate form of governing has not emerged in Afghanistan." Same author added further that the Loya Jirga system shows that "Afghanistan has never evolved economically form an agricultural existence." It has never moved beyond tribal rule and failed to achieve a sense of nationalism. He also pointed out that in Afghanistan each Afghan is Pashtun (the most dominant tribe), Hazareh,