The cessation of smoking has been related to decreased risk of diseases that have been associated with continued smoking. Generally, smoking has been indicated with increased mortality across many of the industrialized nations in the past thirty years (Ezzati, Lopez, Rodgers, Vander Hoorn, & Murray, 2002). It is acknowledged that differences in mortality for males and females globally effects people across geographical region and age (Ezzati & Lopez, 2004). Such findings indicate that smokers are at a much higher risk of diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and early retirement due to chronic disease (Housron Person, Pletcher et al., 2006). In turn, the socio-economic burden of smoking related diseases can result in dramatic financial consequences for the individual as well as the wider community (Murray & Lopez, 1997). Smoking cessation interventions such as cognitive-behvioural therapy have been found to deliverable by nurses, and act as effective and efficient methods of supporting a person from quitting the habit (Coleman, 2004a).
This aim of the research was to use a case study approach to investigate smoking cessation using a CBT intervention to inform nurses understanding of smoking behaviours and cessation experiences. Firstly, a review of the literature will be presented in relation to smoking statistics in the UK, suggested smoking cessation interventions, and the value of cognitive-behavioural therapy in supporting cessation. Secondly, the method of the study will be detailed. Next, the results and discussion will reflect on the main points of the paper and demonstrate the viability of nurses using CBT to support smoking cessation patients.
A Review of the Literature
The Statistics on UK Smoking Behaviours
It is estimated that smoking in the UK kills almost 120, 000 people annually (Milner & Bates, 2002). As a life threatening addiction that is continuously found to kill half of its regular participants, smoking generates a reported 1.1 million GP consultations each year, costing the NHS about 1.5 billion a year. It has been estimated that 364, 000 admissions to hospital were due to smoking in the year 1997/98. And that nicotine dependence is the cause of one in every five deaths in the UK.
The NHS has proposed that tobacco dependence be classified as an illness in itself, and so be treated as a preventative approach to tobacco-related diseases (Milner & Bates, 2002). There is an abundance of evidence that cost effectiveness of suitable smoking cessation interventions. As across time, reduced prevalence of smoking will reduce smoking related consultations and the costs of treatments. A study by the British Doctor's indicated that for those who successfully stopped smoking that there were numerous health benefits. And the Government has leant its support for smoking cessation, as demonstrated in the White paper of public spending by the Treasury as part of the national strategy to deal with health inequalities. Recently it has been shown that successful quitting requires significant support and follow up by trained nurses (Coleman, 2004b).
Cognitive Behavioral Theory
It is accepted among cognitive behavioral therapists that cognitive processes and behavioral techniques can intervene and positively