The authors suggest that innovations and technological change can help to improve knowledge and learning in different service sectors. One reason for this is that once new technical knowledge is acquired, it can usually be embodied in a readily transferable form. The smoothness and slope of the corporate technical learning curve depend on two factors: (1) how well learning about the particular technology is transmitted from site to site and (2) how representative of later sites the first ones that influence developers' design decisions are. Scarbrough & Lannon (1989) underline that technology has a great impact on learning and service improvements. It is possible to apply 'double loop learning' to the case of the Bank of Scotland to describe learning and knowledge creation influenced by technology.
"Double loop learning' was first developed by Argyris & Schon in their work Theory in Practice: Increasing Professional Effectiveness published in 1974. "Double loop learning' can be defined as "is learning where assumptions about ways of seeing things are challenged and underlying values are changed. Double loop learning, in questioning 'givens' or 'taken-for-granteds', has the potential to bring about a profound shift in underlying values by cracking their paradigms or 'ways of seeing the world'" (Argyris & Schon 1992, p. 18). Also, 'Double loop learning' can be characterized through reflection, particularly with others in dialogue. Applied to the case by Scarbrough & Lannon, it is possible to say that "double loop learning' is achieved by means of technology and innovations.
Scarbrough & Lannon (1989) state that learning and knowledge creation cannot exist in a vacuum. The case study shows that in learning the emotional and social as well as the cognitive context is important. Employees can benefit from interaction with others through dialogue and interaction. Although the integration of tasks across teams has the potential for redesigning the entire organization in terms of job descriptions or promotion schemes, management frequently lacks the commitment to change the entire control structure of the organization. It may take time to realize the potential of integrating tasks through teams. The potential may lie in a reduction of the number of middle managers or a change in the authority structure. It is, however, only when the full potential of technology has been realized that organizational structure changes become more visible. In this case, 'double loop learning' is performed through emotions and feelings which surround the action learning process (Argyris & Schon 1992).
Technology can facilitate the establishment of interorganizational ties, yet success depends on the inherent business necessities of such ties, and top management's commitment to making them work. Since knowledge workers become accessible to a number of legally independent organizations, they are assets to a wider community, making them a valuable resource to be protected. Following Argyris & Schon (1992): "all human beings - not only professional practitioners - need to become competent in taking actions