In a world of stability, Citizenship can seem a natural element of creation. Change disturbs stability could bring chaos and revolution. Thus, in order to confirm the longed-for stability of world after the years of war, with a manufactured veneer of science, other races were sacrificed.
There was pressure to establish order in the disciplines from media, as well as in politics. In catering for the needs of elites, there were casualties. Enlightenment philosophers defined the limits for citizenship and understood its importance in the society. The Encyclopaedists explored the nature of work, and appreciated the importance of skill.
As on the past and present issues surrounding Citizenship, we encounter a number of challenges, and key unifying concepts, such as self-determination. Under slavery, individuals are denied control over their own life and work, together with denial of participation in decisions about their own futures.
It is not just a matter of making sense of the historical past, but of acting in the context of the present workplace. Print, electronic and television-broadcasting media has worked in constructing clarity on duties and practices, building a bottom up network based national institutional structure to address key issues of Citizenship and work organization. The objectives are to increase individual autonomy and self-determination; and facilitate team working, networking and coalition building; resulting in healthier work, improved work life balance and a more equitable distribution of power and resources.
On this basis, self-determination is a unifying theme at individual, group and political levels. The issues are international. Citizenship dates from antiquity, continuing in various forms to the present day. In Ancient Greece, as in the newly independent United States of America, the rhetoric of democracy coexisted with the reality of slavery to Citizenship. Human rights were subordinated to property rights. Not everything changes.
When considering Corporate Social Responsibility and Human Rights, for example, should we work at the level of individuals, or of groups Should we operate at national or international level Through media networks and NGOs, we can work at many levels at once. This has long been the basis of trade union activity. We can learn from long standing debates involving organizations such as UNESCO, Amnesty International and International Alert, who have tackled restrictive approaches taken by governments.
The key issues of control and participation can be seen as vital in the spheres of politics and work. In both cases, social standing directly affects health and life chances. People typically seek various forms of autonomy, and a chance to participate in decisions about their own futures. As the dividing lines between work and the rest of life become blurred, concepts such as self-determination find new application, reviving discussion of democracy in the workplace. There are added pressures from globalization, technological transformation, new forms of work organization and demographic change. It is not just a matter of analysis, but of creating actionable knowledge.
The political challenges of citizens continue, and lessons can be learned from different