The first industrial revolution was brought about when the entire mode of work was revolutionized, with workers shifting massively from the agricultural fields to hard-core machine-equipped industrial units. People gave up agricultural labour and joined factories, because of which manufacturing became the major industry, especially in the United States. This led to the dwindling of the agriculture and farming sector. Machinery came to occupy an important position in man's life and everything began to get mechanized. The textile mills were the first to face this mechanization, which eventually spread to other industrial sectors as well. In addition to this, the invention of the steam engine revolutionized transportation and infrastructure.
The first industrial revolution enhanced job opportunities and helped in doing away with unemployment to a large extent. It led to the rise of the middle class, which consisted of industrialists and entrepreneurs over the nobility and gentry. It also led to the betterment of the working class, who found a voice. However, what remained a sad state, was the working condition. The conditions of work remained akin to the pre-Industrial era, with long working hours, child labour and the like.
People's lives changed dramatically and more stress was being laid on organisations, factory units and businesses. This is when the entire perception of earning a livelihood altered drastically. Thus, the first phase of t he industrial revolution was definitely an improvement over the already existent conditions of living. However, it gave rise to the second industrial revolution, which had far-reaching effects.
The second industrial revolution came about, when people started concentrating more on the services, rather than manufacturing per se. The invention of electricity, the growth of railways, and other such details. This period, between 1865 to 1900 was marked by a change in the set-up of organisations and workplaces, that became quite different. This paradigm shift changed the equations once again and set the pace for a totally different kind of work system and environment. The rise of white-collar jobs and professionals and the catering to demand as per the demands of a country's economic disposition was seen.
In addition to this, there was a general form of unemployment, with urban industrial workers taking the main seat. The organisations came to be characterised by a strong working class. For instance, the growth of labour unions and the laying down fo strong principles on the conditions of work, the voicing of opinions and the unification of