In the beginning of 2000, an emphasis is given for the changes in national implementation practices regarding executive and administrative structures of education, training and development systems. However, the administrations face the task of formulating policy for education and training and it needs transmission through a wide range of subsidiary competences to the institution levels. The differences in policy decisions with varying degrees of urgency and authority are subject to differing degrees of interpretation at various stages of implementation. The afore-mentioned aspect is due to complexity in the policy decisions and their implementation. However, the complexity is great when the policy is supranational policy (Phillips, David (Editor), 2003). 1
According to Adey and Philip (1994), there is a notion that the educational standards are not up to the mark in secondary school level and the afore-mentioned standards are regarding the acceptance of certificates of public examinations at secondary school level. ...
The question of standards arises if there is wide acceptance for the notion of not considering the certificates of public examinations as the only criteria for standards in secondary education. The next question is about the complacency of teaching staff and ill designed material affecting the standards, as they may not stop students in getting certificates of public examinations in UK. If the later reason is true, the concern is about the methods that enhance the standards of education and the reliability and relevance of them to secondary education. The first step is to set up higher standards that can lead to higher achievement through fear of loss of job. However, the afore-mentioned aspect may lead to malpractices in education, as the impositions are not enough to enhance or bring out the ability of teaching staff. However, one should keep in view that the popularisation of educational policy may often result in crude instruments of intervention. When the interventions are crude, the methods have poor innovation in judging the standards of secondary education. The innovative intervention should have professional credibility that can lead to higher scores in national testing process. The creation and implementation of the afore-mentioned innovative interventions need investigation of the implications of our understanding about how children learn. Moreover, the understanding about the affects of curriculum on children and the way the professional development in children is affected by curriculum; ways and means of teachers and education policy decide the nature of interventions. For the afore-mentioned aspect, the emphasis on psychological foundations of innovation and a well