StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

Hyperthyroidism - Essay Example

Nobody downloaded yet

Extract of sample
Hyperthyroidism

In the US, two antithyroid medications are being used, propylthiouracil (PTU) and methimazole, while in Europe and Asia, carbimazole which has a similar action to methimazole, is being used (Fenton 2006a). Carbimazole is converted to methimazole inside the body (Ross 2008a). The three antithyroid medications mentioned belong to the class of compounds known as thionamides and these medications inhibit thyroid hormone biosynthesis by decreasing the oxidation of iodide and iodination of tyrosine (Fenton 2006b). PTU also blocks the conversion of T4 (thyroxine) hormone to the more metabolically active T3 (triiodothyronine) hormone (MedicineNet 2005a).
The chemical IUPAC name of methimazole is 1-methyl-3H-imidazole-2-thione, its chemical formula is C4H6N2S, its average molecular weight is 114.1688 g/mol, its melting point is 146 degrees Celsius, its experimental water solubility is 275g/L, and it has a half life of five to six hours (DrugBank 2007a). The following statements describe the mechanism of action of methimazole:
'Methimazole binds to thyroid peroxidase and thereby inhibits the conversion of iodide to iodine. Thyroid peroxidase normally converts iodide to iodine (via hydrogen peroxide as a cofactor) and also catalyzes the incorporation of the resulting iodide molecule onto both the three and/or five positions of the phenol rings of tyrosines found in thyroglobulin. Thyroglobulin is degraded to produce thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which are the main hormones produced by the thyroid gland. So methimazole effectively inhibits the production of new thyroid hormones.'
(DrugBank 2007b)
The chemical IUPAC name of propylthiouracil is 6-propyl-2-sulfanylidene-1H-pyrimidin-4-one, its chemical formula is C7H10N2OS, its average molecular weight is 170.2321 g/mol, its melting point is 219 C, its experimental water solubility is 219 C, and its half life is two hours (DrugBank 2007c).
The chemical IUPAC name of carbimazole is ethyl 3-methyl-2-sulfanylideneimidazole-1-carboxylate, its chemical formula is C7H10N2O2S, its average molecular weight is 186.2315 g/mol, and its melting point is 123.5 C (DrugBank 2007d).
'Methimazole can be administered once per day. Methimazole may be initially prescribed at doses ranging from 10 to 40 milligrams per day. Once the hyperthyroidism is under control, doses of five to 15 milligrams per day are sufficient to control hyperthyroidism... PTU requires an average of 16.8 weeks to effectively lower T4 levels. PTU must be taken two to three times per the day, and several tablets are usually needed to achieve an effective dose. A dose of 300 to 600 milligrams per day may be recommended initially. Once the hyperthyroidism is under control, 100 to 200 milligrams per day are sufficient to control hyperthyroidism in most people.'
(Ross 2008b)
A major hazard of using the three medications (methimazole, propylthiouracil, and carbimazole) is an occasional suppression of the production of white blood cells by the bone marrow, which happens rarely to patients but patients are still advised to see a doctor when they develop a fever, sore throat, or other signs of infection (MedicineNet 2005b). 'The main shortcoming of antithyroid drugs is that the underlying hyperthyroidism often comes back after they are discontinued' (Endocrine Web 2005a). However, according to Ross (2008c) several factors such as antibodies to TSH receptors, individual factors, dose of antithyroid dru ...Show more

Summary

Hyperthyroidism refers to any condition in which there is too much thyroid hormone in the body due to an overactive thyroid gland (American Thyroid Association 2005a). There are several possible options for treating hyperthyroidism. These include antithyroid drugs, beta blockers, radioactive iodine, iodides, and surgery (Reid & Wheeler 2005a)…
Author : dpacocha
Hyperthyroidism Essay essay example
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"Hyperthyroidism Essay"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Check these samples - they also fit your topic

Nutrition to prevent weight loss in stroke patients
Undernourishment among stroke patients is very common. James D. Geyer and Camilo R. Gomez (2009, p.282) reported that about 50% of those who survived an acute stroke will experience dysphalgia or the impairment of normal ability to swallow.
12 pages (3000 words) Essay
The Effects Of Atrial Fibrillation On A Sports Performer
The aim of this research is to study the circumstances and courses under which atrial fibrillation affects sports performers. Sports performers may either be male or female and they are generally referred to as sportsmen and sportswomen.
15 pages (3750 words) Essay
Hyperthyroidism
The most common form of hyperthyroidism is Graves’ Disease - an autoimmune disorder, although there are other forms each with its own causes and effects. However, every form of hyperthyroidism is characterized by increased levels of the thyroid hormone in the blood.The disease is diagnosed through blood tests that measure the thyroid hormone levels in the blood.
4 pages (1000 words) Research Paper
Hyperthyroidism
Hyperthyroidism develops when the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones regulate metabolism and influence all of the body processes, including heart rate, digestion, muscle and bone strength, and cholesterol levels. Hyperthyroidism will cause the increase in thyroid hormone production.
6 pages (1500 words) Essay
Osteoporosis: Demographic Factors

Experts have specified that number of older people suffering from osteoporosis will continue to increase with increment in world population. Eighty percent of abovementioned sufferers are women, and particularly women older than fifty years of age. Besides different risk factors, ethnicity plays a significant role in the development of osteoporosis.

1 pages (250 words) Essay
Essay
rm lesbians were derived from the name of the island where she was born, and it has been used to describe females who are intimately in love with fellow women. In Sappho’s poem number 4, she is parting with her friend. Her friend is marrying. The persona is depressed and has
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Hypothyroidism vs Hypertheriodism
Others include loss of hair, joint pain, carpal tunnel syndrome and high cholesterol. According to White et al. (2010), some symptoms are common in the elderly that comprise of heart failure and dementia. The old people also
1 pages (250 words) Essay
Hire a pro to write
a paper under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Your email
YOUR PRIZE:
Apply my DISCOUNT
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment
Contact Us