This can be attributed to the fact that prior to the development of the first antimicrobial agents, "bacteria already had demonstrated an ability to adapt to stress in the environment, resulting in the development of resistance that often makes the prevailing antibiotic treatment ineffective (LAVIN, B.S. 2000, p S32-S35). "Various types of antimicrobial agents, including extracts of plants, fungi, and lichens, were employed for thousands of years in primitive populations without any scientific knowledge of what was being used. Even in the early part of the twentieth century, therapy for infectious diseases was based essentially on patient isolation and chicken soup" (DAVIES, J. 1999. In praise of antibiotics. ASM News: May 9). That is why the breakthrough of antibiotics is oftentimes considered as "one of the wonders of the modern world" (DAVIES, J. 1999. In praise of antibiotics. ASM News: May 9). Thus it has made striking impressions in the field of medicine, microbiology, and the topic at hand, the pharmaceutical industry. The pharmaceutical industry had taken action to the resistance power of bacteria by producing new antibiotics or further experimenting on altered forms of existing agents. Some utilize combinations of these compounds. But the issue still lies: "Why is it that despite growing bacterial resistance to existing drugs, antibiotic development in the pharmaceutical industry continues to decline"
The glory days of the antibiotic era has come to a close. Presently, new anti-infective drugs that attack disease-causing organisms are difficult to find. "As drug-resistant microbes continue to take a toll on even the youngest and healthiest members of the community, infectious diseases specialists warn that few new and effective antibiotics are in the works" (LANDERS, S.J. 2006. Incentives urged to spur antibiotic development. AMNews: March 20.). Either many accessible drug genres have worn out or the pharmaceutical technology of various firms has no new agents to dispense to the demanding public. Moreover, the rising regulatory requirements are frustrating. These realities discourage researchers to conduct tests and experiments in furthering the antibiotic production.
One point to deliberate in antibiotic development is the financial considerations. Generally speaking, antibiotic production is "financially less attractive" to many pharmaceutical companies compared to other drugs that are in demand in the market. Many firms keep on criticizing the pharmaceutical industry for withdrawing from or dropping its researches on infection control. "The development of new antibiotics is a lengthy and costly process ((LAVIN, B.S. 2000, p. S32-S35) What they do not know is that large pharmaceutical companies have already supplied the necessary antibacterial medicines known to man and only some manufacturers retreated. "Commercial pressure" and anti-infectives as "not highly profitable" are some factors to be pondered as well.
Next thing to consider are regulatory issues. "Regulatory agencies require that sponsors adopt the highest standards in all studies" (EDWARDS, J.R. 2005 Where are the New Drugs: July 1). Drug manufacturers have objected on these regulations since they entail "lengthy approval processes" thus preventing "marketing of potentially beneficial drugs." Nevertheless, the production of new