The metabolic dysregulation associated with DM causes secondary pathophysiologic changes in multiple organ systems that impose a tremendous burden on the individual with diabetes and on the health care system. The two broad categories of DM are designated type 1 and type 2. ALA has been shown to be useful in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and in order to understand the mechanism of action of ALA in control of DM and DM-associated complicating conditions, such as, neuropathy, it is important to understand the pathophysiologic and biochemical mechanism of these conditions (Boulton, 2005).
A prominent biochemical feature of type 2 DM is insulin resistance. This group of disorders is characterised by a pathogenic process that leads to hyperglycemia through variable degrees of insulin resistance, impaired insulin secretion, and increased glucose production. Type 2 DM is characterized by three pathophysiologic abnormalities: impaired insulin secretion, increasing peripheral insulin resistance, and excessive hepatic glucose production. Obesity, particularly visceral or central as evidenced by the hip-waist ratio, is very common in type 2 DM. ...Show more