StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

Electrical Aplication - Essay Example

Not dowloaded yet
uPVC windows frames have been very popular in the UK. uPVC is Unplasticised PolyVinyl Chloride.
Polyvinylchloride is also used for making pipes and other such uses.

Ref: http://www.ishopedia.com/alimony/pvc.php
Constructions:
The VCM Process
Polyvinyl Chloride is a chlorinated hydrocarbon polymer. It is produced from vinyl chloride, chemical formula CH=CHCl, which is used in the form of a gas. Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) is produced from the raw materials of ethylene and chlorine. In a typical VCM plant these are initially reacted together to form an important process intermediate, ethylene dichloride (EDC).

A complete VCM production plant consists of three major units:

1.) a direct chlorination unit, in which ethylene and chlorine are combined in a continuous process to form EDC.

2.) an EDC cracking unit, in which EDC is thermally decomposed into VCM and hydrogen chloride. The hydrogen chloride is recycled as feedstock to a further stage, the oxychlorination unit, while unconverted EDC is separated and recycled. The VCM is purified for use in PVC production.

3.) an oxychlorination unit, in which recycled hydrogen chloride is reacted with further ethylene feedstock in the presence of copper chloride catalyst and oxygen. This produces further quantities of EDC, while excess hydrogen is oxidised to form water.




The S-PVC Process
PVC is formed by the polymerisation of VCM and corresponds to the general chemical formula of (-CH2 -CHCL-)n.
VCM is polymerised in large scale batch reactors in the presence of water, initiators (catalysts) and other additives. The suspended droplets of liquid monomer are progressively converted to solid or porous PVC particles, depending on grade. Unreacted VCM is stripped from the polymer, and water is...
In a typical VCM plant these are initially reacted together to form an important process intermediate, ethylene dichloride (EDC).
2.) an EDC cracking unit, in which EDC is thermally decomposed into VCM and hydrogen chloride. The hydrogen chloride is recycled as feedstock to a further stage, the oxychlorination unit, while unconverted EDC is separated and recycled. The VCM is purified for use in PVC production.
3.) an oxychlorination unit, in which recycled hydrogen chloride is reacted with further ethylene feedstock in the presence of copper chloride catalyst and oxygen. This produces further quantities of EDC, while excess hydrogen is oxidised to form water.
VCM is polymerised in large scale batch reactors in the presence of water, initiators (catalysts) and other additives. The suspended droplets of liquid monomer are progressively converted to solid or porous PVC particles, depending on grade. Unreacted VCM is stripped from the polymer, and water is separated by centrifuging. The polymer is then dried, typically in fluidised bed drying equipment.
Suspension PVC is used for virtually all extrusion, injection moulding and film making processes. Individual grades are characterised by their melt flow properties and their suitability for rigid (unplasticised) or flexible (plasticised) applications.
The polymerisation stage involves an emulsion of very fine droplets of VCM in w ...Show more

Summary

PVC is commonly used as for the insulation on electric wires, the plastic used for this purpose needs to be plasticized. In a fire PVC coated wires can form HCl fumes; the chlorine serves to scavenge free radicals and is the source of the material's fire retardance…
Author : delmerbraun
Electrical Aplication essay example
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
"Electrical Aplication"
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Related Essays

Electrical Engineering in Telecommunications
Information is coded into a carter mode (such as a wave) to transfer the information into a carrier frequency fit for transmission, a process termed modulation. Either the amplitude or frequency of the transmission medium can be modulated. The type of modulation adopted affects the cost implications of the whole system [1].
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Electrical engineering
I wrecked a few electronic items in the house and got in trouble; however, as I grew older I was a regular hand around the house and I did most of the repairs on electronic stuff. In high school, I researched about engineering and one of my mentors and uncle who works as an electrical engineer encouraged me to major in the sciences.
3 pages (750 words) Essay
Electrical Health & Safety
However, it is also important to note that electricity is as much dangerous as it is useful. As in the case of every other energy like fire and water, unless electricity is controlled and harnessed it will become dangerous to use it. In order to understand the ways and means by which we could turn electrical safety ON at our premises, let us take a look at the possible hazards that is in store and how these could be set right using simple but efficient methods.
14 pages (3500 words) Essay
Electrical Energy
Thus it is necessary to have large number of options towards meeting the growing demand while causing very less impact on the earth (Sheffield et al, 63). The major consumption of energy in United States has taken place during the period of major investments in infrastructure expansion.
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Electrical Science
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Electrical Aplication
Polyvinyl Chloride is a chlorinated hydrocarbon polymer. It is produced from vinyl chloride, chemical formula CH²=CHCl, which is used in the form of a gas. Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM) is produced from the
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
HNC Electrical Engineering
The changeover to the unity magnitude of 120-degree phase angle revolutionized the power generation to three phase connections. As this offered the symmetry in components, it offered the ability to calculate in an unbalanced three-phase power system. The
6 pages (1500 words) Essay
HNC Electrical Engineering Project
building extension is to be progressed beyond the feasibility stage, this project proposal has been requested by the Estates and Facilities Department within the Trust to examine the proposals for the upgrading of the existing standby electricity generation provision in order
40 pages (10000 words) Essay
Electrical
This section touches on familiarization with a variety of sections of the Lab-Volt TRANSMISSION LINES circuit board. Also, Thevenin equivalent of an electrical linear circuit is discussed.
7 pages (1750 words) Essay
Electrical Power Systems
Impedance is seen to increase in a linearly when we generate a graph of impedance versus frequency. The impedance at very low voltage access points
8 pages (2000 words) Essay
Get a custom paper written
by a pro under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Your email
YOUR PRIZE:
Apply my DISCOUNT
Comments (0)
Rate this paper:
Thank you! Your comment has been sent and will be posted after moderation