Bad programming codes exist most of the time. These are codes that are more like a traditional kind with long methods and large classes. There are duplicate codes, complex condition and switch statements. And since programming doesn't end once the code is finished and the program is tested correctly, it gets more and more complex as it is being maintained all throughout the program's lifetime.
This is where refactoring will come in handy. Refactoring is a method of altering the code of a software in various ways so it can easily be understood and the cost of modifying the code will be minimal. Refactoring does not change the observable behavior of the program. All changes are done internally just for the purpose of making the code more flexible and reusable. Maintaining the program's observable behavior is crucial to refactoring. Automated testing for each aspect of the software can be done to ensure the consistency of the observable behavior of the program.
Refactoring reduces the degradation of an application over time by helping the developers easily maintain it. It is like cleaning up the program's code. It also makes the program easier to understand in the long run. Since one of the principles of refactoring is for it to be done in small steps, it can help the developer find bugs after testing each small step. And since you can easily find bugs, the time spent fixing them would be lesser. Thus, it will allow for more additional features to be added in the program.
Refactoring, however, may not be applicable to all program codes. If a code seems to be a total mess, really difficult to understand and has a lot of bugs, then it might be better to rewrite the whole thing than just refactoring it. ...
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Therefore, the presence of code smells seems to be an ideal maintainability assessment indicator. Developing strategies that to be used in assessment of maintainability, is very important, considering that significant cost and effort is used during maintenance.
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Just like in mathematics, refactoring in software code will not change the observable behavior of the program, and is not (directly) meant to benefit end users, but only the program maintainers. The semantics of the program should not change.
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Abstract factory class declares only interface for creating products whereas it is the task of concrete product class to actually create products. This might cause concrete factory to override existing factory methods.
The pattern may be used to insulate object
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