Children in the concrete operational stage of development accept the rules and seldom deliberately move outside them. According to Piaget's theory, children from age 7 to 11 move from preconventional to concrete operational where these children have experienced interaction with others in a school setting and have begun to care what others think about them.
Children in the 7-11 age group have the most potential for establishing a positive moral behavioral base. Morality becomes an issue for this age group because this is a time when children move from how a situation will affect them personally to how their behavioral choices will affect someone else. However, throughout this stage, conflicts occur that create moral dilemmas and children in this age group are influenced by so many ideas about what is or is not moral that it is easy for them to make some wrong choices. It is important for a teacher to stress the fact that it is all right to make mistakes because that is how we learn. It is the positive or negative result of the choice made that will help them determine right or wrong in future dilemmas. In other words, they first learn the rules, then how the rules affect behavior, and finally, whether trying to follow the rules might create a moral dilemma while breaking the rule would seem to be the proper choice.
Appropriate strategies to use to teach the selected topic
One problem with trying to teach morality in the classroom is that different children have different concepts of the rules of behavior when it comes to moral issues. However, by creating different moral dilemmas and setting up discussion groups within a classroom, individual students can present a dilemma and its possible resolution, and other students can debate or accept the resolution. The result of this is that the class can establish a moral code of behavior that they can accept. Once that has been accomplished, a further situation could be presented through a children's book that discusses morality, such as The Complete Fairy Tales of Charles Perrault (1993) newly translated by Neil Philip and Nicoletta Simborowski from Perrault's original collection, or in a book such as The Children's Book of Virtues (1995) by William Bennett. Bennett offers what he considers conventional role models for young people while the fairy tales present characters with debatable morals that can generate discussion within a group. Over the years, well-known fairy tales have evolved into versions that are influenced by changing moral concerns within society. In keeping with today's moral breakdown, Sleeping Beauty's story in its original format doesn't end when the prince awakens her. In a passage from Marjorie Allen's discussion of the translation (1999) her life continues:
She marries him in secret and has two children-a boy and a girl. But she and the prince do not live happily ever after as king and queen, at least not for quite some time, because the queen mother happens to be part ogre
Interaction with the environment creates a child's world. Early moral reasoning is, according to Piaget, a developmental process. Reasoning determines behavior, and Piaget's preconventional level of behavior involves an "egocentric point of view." Fear of punishment and desire for rewards are factors that determine a child's behavior from 2 to 7 years old…
In the early XX century, the field of cognitive development mainly focused on existence of abnormal behavior in childhood development. Current understanding of children growth has made people to understand and appreciate physical, cognitive, and social growth in children.
Through cognitive development, a person will perceive and understand their world, basing on the learned and genetic factors. Elements of cognitive development include memory, development of language, intelligence, information processing, and reasoning. Over the years, different scholars have studied cognitive development in children, and came up with varying perspectives.
In human being learning takes place as part of their personal development and education. Generally it is goal oriented and helped by motivation. The study that deals with the learning process is called the learning theories. This paper will compare and contrast the cognitive and observational learning theories.
Development of an individual's ability to learn and master intellectual skills is the focus of cognitive development theories. Intellectual growth and development are defined by overall biological and psychological advancement as affected and governed by the surrounding environment.Cognitive development theory works on the premises that the child develops socially as defined by cognitive maturation and experience and that a child actively explores not governed by habits or instincts.
The essence of learning is that "a learner is changed as a result of past experience" (Littleton, Toates, & Braisby, 2002: 166). The major purpose of this change is to facilitate the process of adjusting to the circumstances that surround us: "Learning is a process whereby individual animals, human and others, are able to acquire knowledge or skills that equip them to cope better with the environment" (Littleton, Toates, & Braisby, 2002: 167).
Bruner summarised his ideas on this topic in one of his well-known works "Child Talk: Learning to Use Language" published in 1983. Let us try to explain Jerome Bruner's account of how infants learn to speak, and discuss his account with reference to developmental psychological research into language development in infancy.
Several theories have been articulated on cognitive development, and researches have been made on different aspects of development in children; three of which have most significant influence on the kindergarten teaching
The teachers who, by and large, bored Jean Louise Finch (the narrator of To Kill a Mockingbird) basically to death throughout her years in school must have wondered why such a bright student appeared so uninterested in her general surroundings.
The ways in which
Teachers have, therefore, adopted two of the most popular theories of Piaget and Vygotsky, into their teaching activities. Through the practices and guidelines provided by these theories, they are better placed to help their students achieve more. Development refers to any process of change and stability that takes place throughout the period of human life.
It will compare and contrast the two psychologists in terms of their contribution to cognitive psychology. The paper analyses their success in building the field of cognitive psychology ensuring it survives the test of time. The contents of the this work covers the
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