The community-acquired UTI happens most frequently in women; very frequent in school girls, then increases as the frequency of sexual activity increases. The vast majority of acute symptomatic infections happen in young women. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is also common in women of ages 20 and 50.
The classical symptoms of UTI, such as, dysuria, urgency, frequency, fever, suprapubic heaviness or pain accompanied by a bacterial count in urinalysis that suggests the microorganism for UTI is symptomatic bacteriuria.
Many different microorganisms can infect the urinary tract, but by far the most common agent is Gram-negative bacillus Escherichia coli. They are implicated aetiologic agents in 90% of the UTI in patients without catheter, stone, or other urologic abnormalities. Other bacteria, although implicated in small percentage of cases, are Klebsiella, Enterobacter, or Proteus.
The urinary tract is viewed as a single anatomic unit that is united by a column of urine extending from urethra to the kidney. In the vast majority of urinary tract infections, bacteria gain access to the bladder via the urethra. In females, the enteric Gram-negative organisms residing in the bowel colonize the introitus, the periurethral skin, and the distal urethra before and during the episodes of bacteriuria.
8. What is urinalysis. Name few methods.
Analysis of the urine to diagnose pathology in the urinary tract is urinalysis. It can be done manually or by strips that diagnose all the aspects of the urine. Many such strips are available in the market, ChemStrip, Multistix, Diastix, UA-1000, and UA-2000. In all these products, there are multiple test pads that upon contact with urine will change colour. There is a colour comparison list that will detect the abnormality.
9. What does urinalysis test
Apart from physical characteristics, urinalysis tests many chemical parameters in urine that may be altered in different urological conditions.
a. pH. This indicates acidity of the urine that may be altered in UTI. This is based on double-indicator principle that changes colour from yellow or green to blue indicating a pH range of 5 to 9. Normally urine is slightly acidic.
b. Protein: A test based on protein-error-of-indicators principle. A development of green colour indicates protein, with yellow indicating negative. Positive reactions are often associated with positive UTI.
c. Glucose: A double sequential enzyme reaction us used to detect glucose in urine. Glucose oxidase catalyses to form gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide from oxidation of glucose that may be present in urine. Peroxidase catalyses reaction of a chromagen potassium iodide to oxidize the chromagen from bluish green to brick-brown. Presence of glucose in urine in the setting of suspected UTI enhances the probability of diagnosis due to presence of diabetes.
d. Ketone: This detects presence of ketone bodies in urine by colours ranging from buff-pink for a negative reading to purple