The desktop research based evidence is poor equipment for a modern manger of business. Our notions and assumption of other cultures gathered from easy armchair research may be the worst trap for a manager. However, the science of ethnography has given insights into patterns of behavior that are found in other cultures and a grounding in the ethnography of the social milieu in which a manager is going to apply the skills is a necessary preparation to function in the international context (Geertz, 1973). Captains of industry and business should undergo a process of empathetic inculterisation with the milieu of their functioning so that they will be in a position to interpret the raison d'etre of the reality in the alien culture. In the wake of globalization, with the increasing internationalization of business and the importance of the perception of cultural diversity for leaders, the academia has churned out a plethora of eminent studies in the field. A review of the literature relevant to the present study is essential to gain a penetrating insight into the functional aspects of leadership in cultural diversity.
Ever since Psychology became an independent branch of enquiry, motivation came under the microscope of scientists. However, the study of motivation in the cultural context is new, early theories form a good beginning. Alfred Adler postulated a theory of drive that motivates humans for action. He calls it striving for perfection (Adler 1926). This striving is expressed in a number of separate drives called the esteem drives. Though Adler's theories do not have the appeal of Freud's with it sex-centric formulations, or Jung's mythological dimensions, for studying motivation and leadership in business it serves as a solid foundation like that of Maslow's theories.
Adler's theory remained a matter of serious pursuit in scholarly circles in spite of its was less flamboyant than the sensational Freudian and Youngian assertions. Victor Frankl's (1963) finding in the dehumanizing conditions of the German concentration camp, which he experienced personally focuses on meaning as the prime source of motivation. Meaning is irrespective of environmental conditions. Frankl observed how people who had meaning endured better the worst atrocities inflicted on them. He puts his theory of human motivation in the borrowed phrase from Nietzsche, if you have a why you almost have a how. The therapy that he derived from his theory he called Logotherapy, which is providing meaning for one's existence.
Perception of Diversity as a Management Tool
A number of pivotal studies on cultural aspect of motivation and leadership in international business environment has unearthed the areas of trouble and has given a road map to success. Hofstede (1980) has done pioneering work in this area. He has based his theories on the factors that motivate western societies and applied them to international cultural contexts. He finds that loose societies or individualistic societies give lot more priorities to social recognition, self interest and egoism and gives more importance for personal achievement and expects some form of reward. While other cultures are happy to achieve success collectively as the members of the social group.For successful leadership performance, Hofested argues, the
The exercise of leadership is undergoing drastic changes in the global business environment. The recent trends in the industry and commerce are the direct result of the social and cultural sharing facilitated by the first hand contacts with diverse cultures that is the result of the international nature of modern business…
Conclusions 10 References 1. Introduction Diversity management is one of the core strategies used by organisations to enhance performance and sustain competitiveness in global markets. Diversity in organisations can be in the form of race, culture, gender, sexual orientation, age, physical abilities etc.
The diversity can ranges beyond the race, ethnicity, age, gender, education, geographic, region, religion, sexual preferences and parental status (Baroutas, 2011, p43). Workplace diversity is an important by product of diversity. It’s a people issue that focuses upon the differences and similarities that people usually bring to an organization (Hacker, 2011, p93; Susan, 2011, p183; Joe Joe, 2011, p52).
modern business world, the interaction between cultural change and the existing company socio-economic-political changes cannot be taken lightly (Bode 2008). The business environment is constantly being affected by these changes, and it is, therefore, important for an in-depth study of these effects especially in relation to international business to be carried out (Aswathappa 2010).
Some believe that diversity is about quotas, and affirmative action. Some experts who study diversity, however, believe that diversity is not something that should be left up to chance. It is important, therefore, for organisations to take action to encourage and foster diversity in the workplace (Clarke, 2001, p.
The author thinks that teacher attrition and the preservation of highly qualified teachers are two of the major challenges facing the education system today. He notes that the degree of teacher satisfaction directly affects the school’s stability, the quality of instructions and hence the overall climate of the school.
Any hypothesis has to be tested against the empirical evidence. The theoretical foundation in contemporary literature is unequivocally in favor of the salutary influence of cultural diversity. This position has been put to the test in the present study by comparing against a number of case studies.
While, in many cases the handling of diverse workforce is still a difficult task, tainted by the misconception and stereotypes, some organizations have identified diversity as a potential source of competitive advantage.
sity refers to people belonging to diverse cultures working in one organisation, which is rampant in Singapore because of its history of immigrants and also due to its growing economic prospects. The present discourse focuses on the way Singapore manages its cultural diversity.
This research is being carried out to analyze the importance of diversity leadership in this increasingly competitive marketplace. The study revealed that in this turbulent business situation, cross-border business is one of the activities that allow business houses to embrace growth and development.
The countries and businesses all across the globe are competing fiercely in order to increase their share in the world market. Today, the business world has dissolved geographical boundaries and goes beyond national
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