The human genome project represents one of the most important projects in the history of humanity. Along with the Apollo missions and the discovery of the structure of DNA, it is one of the historical projects that will forever alter humanity's future and the way we perceive the world around us.
As the reported given by the US Department of Energy said "The ultimate goal of this initiative is to understand the human genome" and "Knowledge of the human genome is as necessary to the continuing progress of medicine and other health sciences as knowledge of human anatomy has been for the present state of medicine." Officially, the project was founded in 1990 by the US Department of Energy and the US National institute of Health. It was estimated that the project would take 15 years, but advances in sequencing technology led to a faster completion of the project, the project being completed 2 years earlier that estimated, in 2003. Ari Patrinos, who is the head of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research, led the Human genome project that was initiated by the US Department of Energy. However, in the US, the Department of Energy was not the only institution that explored the human genome. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) also gave an effort in determining the human genome. From 1988 to 1992 the head of the National Center for Human Genome Research (NCHGR), which was a part of NIH was James Watson, who in April 1993 was replaced with Francis Collins, due to issue of patenting genes. The NCHGR) was also renamed in 1997 into National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI). ...
At any given time, the Human Genome Project funded about 200 separate principal investigators. There were also many private research companies that conducted genome research. The most famous privetly owned company that was involved in the Human genome project was the company owned by Craig Venter and his company Celera Genomics, which gave considerable improvement to the project. It must be mentioned that this was also an international effort. There were at least 18 countries who had human genome research programs. Some of the larger programs are in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, European Union, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, Russia, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the United States. Some developing countries also participated in the project, mainly by studying sequencing techniques for genome research. The Human Genome Organisation (HUGO) coordinated this international effort. The estimated finances that were allocated to the Human genome project are around $ 3 billion. These not include the privately funded organizations and companies, but only the government projects. Celera Genomic states that around $ 300 million dollars were spend for the project, which was much less than the government-funded project.
There were several main goals of the Human Genome project. The goals did not include only identifying the 3 billion nucleotides located in the DNA and to the discover 25 000 genes located there, but also to:
Store this information in databases,
Improve tools for data analysis,
Transfer related technologies to the private sector, and
Address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project.
Due to the massive funding, interest and international effort as well ...
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(The Human Genome Project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words)
“The Human Genome Project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/282640-the-human-genome-project.
This paper introduces the Human Genome Project, with a brief history of its creation and a summary of its main aims and achievements thus far. There is then a consideration of the social, ethical and economic implications of genetic research. Social implications include major advances in medical treatments, but also changes in people’s attitudes and behaviour due to new procedures like testing when symptoms arise or screening before any disease syptoms are apparent.
Scientists and policymakers alike are testifying to the potential benefits of the human genome project. But ethicists and theologians are opposing the project based on the ethical concerns it raises. This essay tries to answer three of the major questions the human genome project poses: (1) What will the world look like in regard to genetic testing, genetic engineering, and cloning; (2) can the information learned from the Human Genome Project be used to eradicate disease; (3) what are the ethical implications and how might this power be misused?
(Human, 2006). The significance of the project is indicated by the major initiative taken by the Government keeping in view its overall benefits to the public. It is also natural that the private sector which primarily operates on the basis of profit making only seeks projects which have a scope of providing substantial returns.
and there are issues of bioethics that surround it because some people think that the project will lead to eugenics and the formation of structural inequality theory based on genetics. “Yet despite this impact on society as a whole, legislation on the regulation of
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The author asserted that decoding the human genome would result in better understanding and advantages for human health. However, some scientists opposed the move fearing that this kind of project would lead to a product that would be of little benefit to human beings. The Human Genome Project began in 1990.
Abnormal pairing or alteration in pairing of DNA bases results to varieties of genetic complications, which can be inheritable. Several studies have been carried in an attempt to explore more about genome. Various institutions and projects have, thus, been
The level of the SHGB, whether low or high, determines the quantity of the bioavailable testosterone. This makes the assessment of the gene levels among patients undergoing tests for Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) very important. The aims of this project entail; the
Genetic test records may form the basis of decisions made by parities such as insurers and employers and this negatively affects the people with the “wrong gene” (Schoonmaker and Williams 30).
The groups working
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