For example problem based learning design and role based learning design.
The basic principle underlying the problem based learning design is older than formal education itself. A good learning design should be one that incorporate or integrate both formal and informal education. The problem-based learning design therefore integrates the two types of education. It is a way where learning is initiated by a posed problem, query, or puzzle that the learn wants to solve. This type of learning may be mixed with other learning models such as group work and case studies, but is distinguished by the focus on having students delineate, research and solve a realistic problem (Dods, 1997).
Just from the introduction of informal education, many instructors have proposed this type of learning approach because of the following reasons. In the first place problem based learning approach is argued that it is good when it comes to preparing students to apply their learning to a real world situation. Students are able to identify a real world problem they are familiar with in the environment and then finally come with the students who are learning to better apply their learning to real world situation. Learners are given questions or problems by their instructors whereby they are suppose to carry out a research after making some relevant questions and thoughts on how to solve he problem.
The other The other rationale of problem based learning design is that it enables learners to become producers rather than consumers of knowledge. By engaging in research the learning is able to learn new things and come up with new knowledge. Research has also been made easier in the learning environment just because of the introduction of the new information communications and technology. Rote learning is highly discouraged since it makes students to lazy (Gorman, Plucker and Callahan, 1998). The new learning design should encourage students to take the active part is the learning exercise. Teacher centred approach is something that used to happen in the past and should not be incorporated in our learning environment at the moment. Problem based learning design therefore motivates students to get involved in active research work whereby they are able to find new knowledge and skills.
The other reason why problem based learning is found to be good is because the system help students to develop communication, reasoning and critical thinking skills. Curriculum developers and planners have redesigned their curriculum, which entail learning experiences, methodologies and content to carter for the new technology introduced in the environment. Education is supposed to prepare students and graduates to meet the new demands in the market. One cannot be an entrepreneur if she cannot think and come up with new idea. Problem based learning design therefore promotes the development of communication, reasoning and critical thinking skills. Interpersonal skills should be provided to students whereby they should learn how to interact with their peers and other members of the society. With problem based learning approach these skills are possible.
Proponents some educators who prefer this learning design also argue that students are able to learn by themselves with