Got a tricky question? Receive an answer from students like you! Try us!

Mutation of DNA - Essay Example

Author : albertreilly
Download 1


Substitution mutation is the most common mutation due to substitution of base pair in DNA. During replication of DNA repair, wrong base pairs are incorporated. Base pair substitution is of two types, Transition & Transversion.
This type of substitution takes place due to Tautomerism…

Extract of sample
Mutation of DNA

Transversion mutation involves the substitution of purine by pyrimidine and pyrimidine by purine. This type of mutation is rare due to steric problems of pairing purines with purines, and pyrimidine with pyrimidines.
This type of mutation takes place due to chemical modification in a base. The chemical modification is caused due to two reactions one is deamination and second is depurination. In deamination Cytosine occasionally loose an amino group and then it is converted to Uracil. This resulted in pairing of Uracil-Guanin instead of Cytosine-Guanin. It is well known that Uracil pairs with Adenin. After Uracil-Adenin pair in first round of replication, thymine takes the place of Uracil in second round of replication. And finally Cytosine - Guanin pair is converted to Adenin - thymine Pair. In depurination loss of purine group (Adenine or Guanin) takes place.
Due to deletion and insertion of one or a few nucleotides in DNA molecule, the shifting of reading frame of nucleotide takes place either in backward or in forward position, this results into a mutation. This is known as frameshift mutation. Generally this mutation occurs where there is a short repeated nucleotide sequence.
Any agent that directly cause damage to the DNA alters the base sequence or interferes with repairing system is known as mutagens. Mutagens may be some chemical or radiation. Here we are discussing how the mutagen can act:
Download paper



Related Essays

Mitochondrial DNA
This is accomplished in humans by the sequencing one or more of the hypervariable control regions (HVR1 or HVR2) of the mitochondrial DNA (Schwartz & Vissing 2002).…
3 pages (753 words)
DNA Fingerprinting
Jeffreys began at the simplest, by detecting single copies of the genes and the phenomena of introns. It was this research that introduced the genuine concepts of restricted fragment length polymorphism or RFLP.(Newton, 2004, np) By this technique it was possible to divide the DNA in to smaller pieces, which in turn led to discovery of SNP or single nucleotide polymorphism. The SNP became a designation for points in DNA that show variation in the nucleotide arrangement, which prevents their cutting. These two discoveries were going to affect the entire future of the genetic technologies.…
8 pages (2008 words)
Archaeology through DNA analysis
An example can be seen through a recent discovery which led a group of researchers' claim into having been able to positively identified the remains of Copernicus-the first astronomer who theorized that it is the Sun, not the Earth, that is in the center of the universe. Such findings have put an end for years of debates and speculation over the location where the 'unsung hero' was exactly buried.…
20 pages (5020 words)
Biology assignment: Carbon cycles, Lizard species, DNA visibility
During metabolism, oxygen is used and carbon dioxide is a product. The organic matter takes centuries to form. Fossil fuels principally consist of carbon and hydrogen bonds. There are three types of fossil fuels, which can all be used for energy provision- coal, oil and natural gas. The fossil fuel reservoir contains more than twice as much carbon as is now stored in forests and soils combined. When fossil fuels are burned carbon and hydrogen react with oxygen in air to form carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). Humans influence the carbon cycle during the combustion of any type of fossil…
7 pages (1757 words)
DNA Sampling
The police, because of legal concerns, refuse to pursue this lead by acquiring samples from each of the thousands of persons of interest to it. The investigators' second-best lead was the footage shot at a truck stop on the night Falconio vanished. Bradley Murdoch was interviewed because his appearance and match with truck video, and passed over for DNA sampling. But Murdoch provided an apparent excuse to the police and he was declared innocent.…
7 pages (1757 words)
DNA Mutations
The function of the protein made by this polypeptide will be changed or lost as well (Blamire ,2000). To put in simpler language, mutation alters the function of the enzyme that catalyses a particular genetic function resulting in the change of inherited characters through different generations. It results in the alteration of DNA sequence and consequently results in changes in the genetic and physical appearance of an organism. Thus the phenotype of the organism carrying the DNA which went through mutation will be changed.…
2 pages (502 words)
protein synthesis/ DNA
2. Produce a nucleotide sequence with a single base-pair substitution mutation that still produces the same amino acid sequence. Indicate the site of the mutation and explain why the amino acid sequence is not affected.…
1 pages (251 words)