It should be noted that "his work has influenced how information is organized and presented in textbooks for elementary school through college, as well as how many computer tutorial programs are written" (Major Behavioral Psychology Theories n.d.).
B. F. Skinner's main contribution in the field of behavioral psychology is his pioneering work on understanding behavior as a function of environmental histories of reinforcing consequences. He has capitalized on E. L. Thorndike's theory which posits learning as a function of behavior and consequences. BF Skinner has been widely regarded for his discovery of operant conditioning or the "use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior" (Operant Conditioning 2007). He believes that the development of our individual personality is largely due to how respond to the external situations around us. As stated above, this finding has become one of the basic assumptions held in the field of behavioral psychology, that is, behavior is created through reinforcement and punishment.
The contributions of Skinner to psychology can be created to his invention of the operant conditioning chamber which he uses to measure organism's responses and their interaction with the environment. His study focused mainly on how rats are conditioned in order to come up with the desired behavior.
According to B. F. Skinner, there are four types of operant conditioning namely, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and extinction. Through positive reinforcement, a particular behavior is strengthened by the consequence of experiencing a positive condition. In negative reinforcement, a particular behavior is strengthened by the consequence of stopping or avoiding a negative condition. On the other hand, punishment occurs when a behavior is followed by an aversive stimulus. Lastly, extinction refers to the weakening of an established behavior because of lack of positive or negative reinforcement (Operant Conditioning Basics 2007).
Through these responses of other people around an individual, he is able to establish a unique personality. It becomes notable that Skinner equates personality with behavior and "behavior is determined by principles of operant conditioning which focuses on the relationship of behavior to the environment" (Walsh n.d.). This, of course is void of the individual's thoughts, emotions, and even freedom of choice. For Skinner, mental processes and structures plays no important role in finding the link between behavior and the external environment. Also, freedom of choice is non-existent; stressing that it is solely the environmental stimuli which determine the behavior of an individual. Thus, B. F. Skinner strongly asserts that "the consistency observed in the behavior of individuals is the result of the development of stable response tendencies (Walsh n.d.)." He also recognized that these tendencies may change over time as environmental sti
Burrhus Frederic Skinner (B.F. Skinner) is one of the most recognized personalities in the field of behavioral psychology or behaviorism. Compared to other areas in psychology, behaviorism has been formulated under four assumptions: the proper concern of psychological science should be the study of observable behavior and responses; people are born as blank slates and whatever they learn to do depends on their interactions and experiences with the environment; behavior that is followed by satisfying consequences will be more likely to be repeated and behavior that is followed by unsatisfying consequences will be less likely to be repeated; and changes in behavior and learning can occur automa…
It helps in finding answers to challenging phenomena such as erupting natural as well as manmade extrication. Research is, therefore, an imperative tool towards development that, if exploited appropriately, can lead to the discovery of many and diverse environments.
The core idea underlying this popular philosophic stance is that knowledge is socially and culturally mediated while learning is "...a self-regulated process of resolving inner cognitive conflicts that often become apparent through concrete experience, collaborative discourse, and reflection" (Fosnot, 1993: 7).
The quest continues up to now, and the most obvious outcome of the efforts is the finding that human psychology is an overwhelmingly complex and multifaceted field. Almost every perspective that once claimed to discover the psychological determinants of human behavior was subsequently found to have serious limitations and replaced by a new theory.
He was one of the advocates of the Behavioural Theories which is based in the relationship between the stimulus and response. This relationship between the stimulus and response is shown in the change of the pattern of behaviour and the reaction of the organism.
The author states that Watson’s theories are still practiced in modern psychology. Many current day psychologists will try to correct a patient’s behavior problem with behavior modification, while reversing the cause of the problem. Skinner gave a different theory, in which he claimed that the behavior was the result of certain consequences.
behaviorism is a theory that looks at the organism’s actual behavior and it depends on the observable and definable conditions of the organism rather than the testing of formal theories. Skinner states that there are two important features of radical behaviorism: (a)
One such research is psychological research, which has helped in the medical sector provide dispensing answers about patients. Psychological conditions prevail in everyone, a study of the conditions help in establishing the employee
irst inferred that learning resulted from an individuals interactions with the environment whereas; the other assumption credited the environment for influencing behaviors. In addition, behaviorists discredited the use of internal mental states such as thoughts, feelings as a
In parent-children communication, the verbal communication is accompanied by the non-verbal communication.
The major purposes of communication include the sending, receiving and interpreting of messages and ideas and then to respond to them