However, the Callaghan suggestions underpin them all; whether the policy is social or right based they are all consumers and the success of each approach have a trickle effect to local as well as global economy.
The term citizenship have a number of implications: it means to be a member of a particular political community or state. It implies that, one has certain rights and responsibilities that are defined in law, such as the right to vote, the responsibility to pay taxes among others. This type of citizenship is referred to as nationality.
Citizenship can also refer to individual's involvement in public life and affairs- that is the behaviours and actions of a citizen. This type of citizenship is sometimes referred to as "active citizenship". This definition of citizenship applies to a number of activities. They include among other; voting in elections, standing for political office and having interest in current affairs. It widens its wing to capture the moral and behavioural expectations of being a citizen of a particular political community (Citizenship Foundation &DfES, 2004, Chap 1).
According to Crick report, citizenship education should be included in the National Curriculum in order to educate the children the importance of knowing the rights of being a citizen and the role of a citizen in the society (Cric...
tizenship education should be included in the National Curriculum in order to educate the children the importance of knowing the rights of being a citizen and the role of a citizen in the society (Crick, 1998).
British education system manifests various forms of citizenships. Since 1944, Social citizenship has been the defining element in British education system policies characterized by a number of Acts of parliament and Circulars. The social citizenship was brought about in the 21st century as the British and most of capitalist states embraced the concept of welfare states after 1944. These welfare states systems brought a drastic and radical change to the paradigm of political, social and economic constraints of British citizens as well as many social institutions. The education system was not an exception. Welfare states since then have affected the citizens' choices in life by redistribution of resources which have so far opened and widened social opportunities and possibilities as noted by Twine. (Twine, F, 1994, p. 2).
According to Wincott, post-war welfare state in Britain remained powerful. The welfare propagated by then stated that Citizens should have equal access to public services based on need not place of residence. However, he laments that Britain devolution policy led to the loss of initial status as an exemplary welfare state. The system failed to provide an adequate territorial framework for the development of social policy.
Nevertheless, individual federal units in government have been championing the social citizenship in various sectors of the British society. The most conspicuous of these sectors where social citizenship is widely applicable is education sector. The British education policy hold that every citizen has a