35). In education, dissemination affects not only the staff, but also teacher-student relations and interaction. Dissemination can take the form of iintentionally harmful actions or prescribed action which limit equal opportunities or humiliate an employee. Also, Elkins (1963) and Sowell (1971) suppose that discrimination was influenced by the period of slavery and racial inequalities (Taylor 1998). Barbara Bergmann (1974) argues that dissemination is a result of the market structure which consists of skilled and non-skilled workforce. Unskilled and low-paid workforce is usually presented by black and minority employees (Taylor 1998). Discrimination and an increase in out-migration of whites from neighborhoods as larger numbers of blacks arrive are the major explanations for black-white segregation. Prejudices and discrimination is due to misunderstandings about the significance of a biological sense of "race" and racist ideas transmitted across generations and based on 'lower biological quality' of African populations. The main cause of segregation and racism is the cultural superiority of "whites" based on their cultural heritage and absence of 'white' slavery. Most Africa-Americans are seen as "lower" class people in contras to "elite" class of whites (Harvey and Allard 2004).
Discrimination in the workplace has deep roots. Dissemination by race was eliminated in 1863 by 13th Amendment which made slavery illegal. In 1868, 14th Amendment announced equal protection of all citizens in all states. During the first half of the XX century, black people and racial minorities experienced discriminated in wages and work conditions; they were deprived a chance to receive good education and compete with white majority (Harvey and Allard 2004). Till the middle of the XX century, women occupied clerical jobs and were not promoted to administrative positions. Actions against discrimination go back to 1941 when F. Roosevelt "encouraged minority employment by ordering defence contractors to cease discriminatory hiring" (Yates, n.d.). Further, the policy of anti-discrimination was developed by Lyndon Johnson in 1965 when he "put teeth into minority hiring rules for government contractors' (Yates, n.d.). The next amendments took place under the presidency of J. Kennedy who introduced Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) "establishing to investigate contractors' practices, impose sanctions, collect employment statistics, and ensure compliance with government regulations" (Yates, n.d.). Pre-war period (immigration act was introduced in 1924) was marked by racial prejudices and stereotyping against Asian Americans. The main areas of discrimination were family, religion, criminal justice, education and job opportunities. WWII - 1965 marked a new stage in workforce relations. During this period of time, many low class people entered educational established and found high paid jobs. In response to the growing demand for equal rights, Congress enacted major pieces of modern civil rights legislation during the 1960s that have taken the country an enormous step closer to realizing the promises of the first Reconstruction. These modern statutes, protect racial minorities against most forms of public and private discrimination in employment,