HIV mainly infects cells bearing the CD4 surface molecule, which acts as a specific receptor for the viral envelope protein, gp120. Such cells are found predominantly within the immune system and include T-helper lymphocytes, monocytes and antigen-presenting cells…
This CD4-defined tissue tropism explains the major pathological effects of HIV, which are immunodeficiency and neurological disease. However, HIV may also cause damage at sites where CD4 is not expressed. This may be a result of direct infection of CD4-cells, in which low levels of viral replication can occasionally occur, or due to infiltration of tissue by HIV-infected lymphocytes and macrophages, which release toxic viral proteins and/or pro-inflammatory cytokines. (Nye & Paskin, 1994:41)
There have been a lot of unusual theories attempting to explain the origin of AIDS. Some people have theorized that it began in rural Haiti and spread to urban Haiti, and then to gay men in the United States and to Africans in Kinshasa, Zaire (the capital of that central African nation), where many Haitians were living. This theory is no longer accepted, since HIV research in rural Haiti shows that HIV was very rare there, and that it has been spreading from urban Haiti to rural Haiti, not the other way around. HIV in the late 1970s and early 1980s was more likely to have spread into Haiti from gay men coming from the United States to bisexual male Haitians, and from HIV-infected Haitian men and women returning from Zaire to persons living in Haiti. Some have argued that AIDS and HIV have been around for thousands of years and we are simply seeing a reemergence of the scourge. We know from reading the hieroglyphics on the temple and pyramid walls of ancient Egypt that the Egyptians of nearly five thousand years ago had a similar epidemic where people mysteriously died of immunosuppressive (weakening the immune system) disorders very much like what we see today in AIDS patients. But today we know that HIV mutates very rapidly, changing about 1 percent each year. It is likely that throughout human history, infectious diseases that were highly virulent and immunosuppressive emerged, killing many thousands, and then subsided. A virus that weakens the immune system opens the way for the same kinds of opportunistic infections and cancers that occur in people with AIDS. In other words, the disease would be AIDS-like but not AIDS itself, caused by an HIV-like agent but not HIV itself.
Some have claimed that HIV was artificially created in a biological warfare laboratory and purposely released in the population to kill off gay men, injecting drug users, Haitians, and Africans. Near the end of the Cold War in the mid-1980s, the then Soviet Union went so far as to claim that HIV was invented and released just for that purpose from a biological warfare lab in Maryland. The United States Department of State spent much time and effort to counter that argument around the world, insisting there was no truth to the allegation. But could it ...
Cite this document
(“HIV/AIDS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/283107-hivaids
(HIV/AIDS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 Words)
“HIV/AIDS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/283107-hivaids.
By 1998, USAID has been active in launching HIV activities that mainly focused on prevention among youth. In 2005, the focus was shifted towards most at risk populations (MARPs) (usaid.gov). Nevertheless, as early as 1995, the Russian government has already formulated Russia’s Federal Law on HIV/AIDS.
Poverty could account for many infections, which are felt in Africa today. It has been quite challenging when dealing with the infectious disease since the medical services in Africa are declining, poverty is mounting, and a vast sphere of gender inequality has consumed the continent.
In 1982 the term “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome” was coined to describe the array of symptoms noted in individuals with AIDS. The underlying cause of the array is a depressed immune response characterized by the appearance of opportunistic infections, so-called because they are caused by organisms which do not cause disease in healthy individuals.
Health Program evaluation is paramount to gauge the effects of public health actions, since "effective program evaluation is a systematic way to improve and account for public health actions by involving procedures that are useful, feasible, ethical, and accurate" (Framework for Program evaluation, 1999).
Immunodeficiency is a condition that leaves human beings susceptible to infection by the natural defect of the immune system or by viral infections like AIDS (Leksmono, 2008). In the UK, the death of a 49-year-old man in Brompton Hospital, London in 1981, due to a very weak immune system, may have been the first recorded case of HIV/AIDS.
The author of the essay states that HIV is the virus that causes the gradual collapse of the immune system that enables AIDS diseases such as Pneumocystis pneumonia, Kaposi’s sarcoma and a host of other conditions to affect the patient. It should be pointed out, risk behaviors for receiving HIV are unprotected sex and needle sharing among injectable drug users.
In the first article HIV/AIDS Epidemic Still Ravaging African Countries by VOA’s Kim Lewis, the author dispels the notion that some of the African countries are winning the war against HIV/AIDS. The article asserts that the pandemic
ea of interest in this work is the History of the disease that takes into account: the year it was first reported, the year it was identified as the cause of HIV, the first drug approved for treatment of the disease and the year the use of condoms was first confirmed as
Stigmatization worsens the psychological, physical, and social impact by hindering the proper treatment and hampering social support and disclosure of one’s status (Habib & Rahman, 2010). In addition, one finds it
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Essay on topic HIV/AIDS for FREE!