Describe the research methods and findings of one sociolinguistic research project undertaken by Labov.( NOT the New York Department store study).

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There are three main research methods, namely Causal Research, Relational Research and Descriptive Research. "Causal Research determines if one variable causes another variable to occur or change, while Relational Research can be seen as a study that investigates the connection between two or more variables is considered relational research." (


The aim of descriptive research is to verify formulated hypotheses that refer to the present situation in order to elucidate it. Descriptive research is thus a type of research that is primarily concerned with describing the nature or conditions and degree in detail of the present situation (Landman 1988. p. 59).
Descriptive Research also aims to show what already exists in a population or group of people. For example, an opinion poll that is conducted to determine the most popular Presidential candidate in an upcoming election, or the type of research used in this paper.
Here are the results of an interview carried out in a New York City school. During the interview, a black boy enters a room where there is a big, friendly white interviewer. The interviewer puts a fire engine or a block on the table between them, and asks the boy to describe what he can about the object. In the conversation below, the remarks in parentheses are the interviewer's
Here we can see the same kind of monosyllabic and defensive behavior and way of speech which produces a situation in which the child is in an asymmetrical situation where anything he says can, literally, be held against him, as Bereiter reported in his work. ...
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