To provide the reader with a broader meaning of globalization, I provide lists of selected definitions from recent authors and writers. These experts are from different disciplines and organizations as well as from both poor and rich countries. The organizations include the United Nations systems, universities, and leading media outlets. The disciplines include management and journalism. Still, the list must be seen only as a small sample and is not intended to be comprehensive.
"It is the inexorable integration of markets, nation-states and technologies to a degree never witnessed before-in a way that is enabling individuals, corporations and nation-states to reach around the world farther, faster, deeper and cheaper than ever before, and in a way that is enabling the world to reach into individuals, corporations and nation-states farther, faster, deeper, cheaper than ever before."
"Globalization is the growing interdependence of the world's people a process integrating not just the economy but culture, technology, and governance. People everywhere are becoming connected-affected by events in far corners of the world."
"Present day globalization is a unique convergence of technological, economic and political forces of daunting power and influence, having a massive impact on all aspects of public and private life in economic, social, political and cultural affairs at global, national and local levels. As it influences states and their partner actors, it is also exploited and shaped both positively and negatively by those with the foresight and resources to appreciate its power. Yet, so diverse and overwhelming is globalization's manifold influences that no one group or sector can control or stop it. As such, it has been responded to and manipulated by a range of actors in the public, private and civil society actors, is instigated in good and bad motives, and has benefited some social and economic groups, but has hurt others who have become more vulnerable and disempowered due to its influence."
-United Nations (2000:10)
"Globalization has three dimensions: cultural-ideational, politico-institutional, and economic. There are three ordinarily ranked levels of economic integration: existence of global infrastructure, harmonization and convergence of economic policies and institutions, and/or borderlessness. To understand the policy implications of cross border economic integration, we need to focus on flow of goods and services as well as factors of production-land, labour, capital, entrepreneurship, and technology."
-Aseem Prakash and Jeffery A. Hart (1998:611)
"All institutions have to make global competitiveness a strategic goal. No institution, whether a business, a university, or hospital, can hope to survive, let alone to succeed, unless it measures up to the standards set by the leaders in its field, any place in the world. The world economy is increasingly becoming global. National boundaries are impediments and cost centers."
-Peter F. Drucker (1999:61, 63)
"We cannot live as isolated individuals. As market