In this essay I shall shortly describe my own views on personality and then discuss some theories that are popular in their descriptions of the human personality. The theories of three theorists namely, Sigmund Freud (1856 - 1939), Carl Gustav Jung (1875 - 1961), Albert Bandura (1925- ), and their work on human personality shall be discussed here. In the process I shall envisage to understand the differences and similarities in the theories of psychoanalysis.
In my perspective human personality is complex, and is constituted of many factors such as 1) physical attributes and genetic make-up, 2) cultural and ethnical background, 3) personal aptitudes and beliefs. The first two factors are largely inherited with little scope for alteration; like for example, skin color, height, propensity towards some inherited diseases, are inherited and do have a bearing on one's personality. The second two factors are socially constructed, partially inherited and partially changeable, but, nevertheless have great influence on the human personality. For example, the work-culture and perception of opportunities by a Chinese is more likely to be typically inherited from his/her parents and very specific to that ethnic and cultural background. I call it partially changeable because, the same Chinese immigrated to the U.S. ...
The third set of factor is important and is mostly responsible for making a qualitative difference in one's personality. For example, physicist Stephen Hawking suffered from the degenerative Lou Gherig's Disease (www.hawking.org), but never allowed it to come in the way of his scientific quest. Battling with pneumonia, he lost his voice; but his sheer love for science and integrity made him to overcome all his set-backs. He is a good example of the power of personal beliefs and aptitudes, and what it can achieve, despite handicaps.
Theories of Psychoanalysis
Consciously or unconsciously, my concept of personality is derived from three theorists: Freud, Jung and Bandura. Importantly, the 'structure of personality' (Ewen 6) as per each construct shall be delineated here, with a further discussion of how they have helped in my understanding of the human personality. 'Construct' refers to "a set of terms and principles constructed or applied by the theorist" that constitutes a theory and they are useful in explaining the particular theory of personality and comparisons between them (Ewen 4); like for example Jung's theory of psyche and the human personality is marked by the terms and descriptions like the 'collective unconscious' and archetypes (Ewen 6).
First in the discussion shall be Sigmund Freud. Von Schubert, Carus, and Schopenhauer, had already done some research in the field of 'unconscious' (Ewen 7-8). Freud's concept consists of the constructs - id, ego, and superego (Freud 1923 p.8). He holds that the human being is driven by powerful instincts which get activated when the body is mature. Human beings are born with an Id which may be understood as basic instincts like hunger, sleep and so on.