What is knowledge How is it acquired Can one gain an objective understanding of external reality, or is one's knowledge of the world colored and distorted by internal factors" were the questions he formulated that led to the formulation of his theories on the development of knowledge.
Piaget proposes that there are three types of knowledge: physical, social, and logical mathematical. According to Piaget, "Intelligence is an adaptationTo say that intelligence is a particular instance of biological adaptation is thus to suppose that it is essentially an organization and that its function is to structure the universe just as the organism structures its immediate environment". "Piaget also called his view constructivism, because he firmly believed that knowledge acquisition is a process of continuous self-construction. That is, Knowledge is not out there, external to the child and waiting to be discovered. But neither is it wholly performed within the child, ready to emerge as the child develops with the world surrounding her...Piaget believed that children actively approach their environments and acquire knowledge through their actions". Piaget declared that he is neither an innatist nor an empiricist. He believes that we always interpret according to our own structure. Innatists believe that every individual is born with preexisting ideas present in the mind. Empiricists, on the other hand, believe that experience, especially of the senses, are the only sources of knowledge. Piaget argues that for empiricists, knowledge is a copy of objects. But actually, knowledge is always an assimilation or interpretation. In drawing a geometrical shape, the child does not draw what he sees, rather, he draws his idea of it - he draws what he knows of it. To look at it a clearer perspective, the child actually draws his interpretation of the object, and not the exact object itself. Asking a child to draw a diamond shape, showing the child a model of that shape, would give the child an idea of what you want him to do. He may see the diamond shape as a square with some points on it, so he may draw a square with a point in it or with a point beside it.
In the light that Piaget believes knowledge is primarily operative, he points out that children who are in the concrete operations stage (seven to eleven years old), and in the formal operations stage (twelve years old and up) constructs their perception of the world through the cognitive development which results from the child's interaction with the environment. The interiorisation of this interaction then forms internal models of reality or "operational structures" which forms the basis of perception upon which the child acts.
In the seriation demonstration, four children were asked to arrange a set of rods in order of length. Barbara is 3.5 years old, Renaud is 4 years old, Matthieu, 6.5 years old, and Catherine who is 9 years old. Among the four children, Catherine mastered the seriation structure as she can comprehend the processes of relating, corresponding, ordinal estimation, measurement, and classification. Catherine is at the age wherein she has mastered the nature of coordination. Barbara, on the other hand, being the youngest in the group, at 3.5 years old, she in the stage wherein she is motivated by biological and social impulses, also she has no sense of obligation to rules. She is the one with the poorest seriation structure among the group. Renaud is a few months older than Barbara, and similar results are expected from him regarding the seriation process, but better, as he is more ...
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This research aims at comparing and contrasting Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson work on child psychology. Development psychology has undergone many changes since the beginning of the 20th century. Most early theorists influenced the field of psychology significantly. Notable theorist whose impact determines child psychology and early childhood education are Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson.
The variety of goods and services involved necessitates proper arrangement of factors within the retail market to achieve the business aspirations. Retail management calls for departmental organization to bring the customers in to the store/ outlet and fulfilling their buying needs.
GameStop is committed to delivering user-friendly videos games that meet individual needs to all its customers. Knowledge and its significance Knowledge can be acquired through various means because there exist numerous ways to attain on a certain subject or about something (Nonaka and Nishiguchi, 2001).
He wrote a short paper at the age of eleven which acted as the very beginning of his career as a researcher. He pursued studies in natural sciences and in 1918, he obtained a Ph.D. in Zoology from the University of Neuchatel (Cherry 1). He would call himself a genetic epistemologist as he was determined to discover the roots of different forms of knowledge.
J. Ayer, 1975). The conception has been advanced and propounded by a large number of writers in a number of theses taking a variety of forms: (1) definitional (a definition of epistemology itself), (2) definitional again (a definition of knowledge), (3) genetic (a thesis about the conditions under which epistemology and all its problems arise), (4) semantic (a thesis about a necessary condition of a question's making sense), (5) historical (theses about the founder of epistemology and the period of its founding), (6) scopic (a thesis about the scope of epistemology), and (7) existential (a thesis about the existence of general skeptics).
This principle relies on the assumption that a child assimilates certain facts/concepts from the environment and internalizes them according to his own cognitive structure (Wood, 1998).
Piaget believes that children develop cognitive structures on their own via the processes of adaptation, accommodation and assimilation.
Both theories are of great importance to both childcare and pedagogical ideas.
Vygotsky thus suggests that "consciousness" is in fact the end product of socialization, rather than, as Freud et al. suggested, that social interactions depend upon the level of consciousness that has been achieved.
The XX century has given an impulse for development of all the spheres of human’s activity, and the science of psychology is not an exception. The raising interest to the development of the personality resulted in originating of a new direction in psychology – developmental psychology. The most prominent scientists in this field are a Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget and an Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud, into whose activity we will now investigate.
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