Bell developed new and original ideas, but did so by building on older ideas and development (Farley). Transmission of electricity over wires by Stephen Gray in 1729, first Battery produced by Alessandro Volta in 1800, Michael Faraday's experiments with electromagnetism in 1821, Professor Henry's transmission of the first practical electric signal and the invention of the electromagnet in 1830 were the major developments, which paved the way for the invention of the first working telegraph by Samuel Morse in 1837, and the completion of the first non-working telephone in 1861 by Johann Phillip Reis. Successful experiments with a clock spring reed in transmitting actual sound over a pair of wires, ultimately led to the birth of the telephone on March 10, 1876, with the famous first sentence to be transmitted accidentally: "Mr. Watson, come here, I want you". With other inventors like Elisha Gray closely on his heels, Bell received his patent No. 174,465 for his epoch making invention. Since his invention was unprecedented, Bell was obliged to call it as "an improvement in telegraphy". Obviously, it was the telegraph and its wired network, which was most responsible for the development and success of the telephone.
Impact of the Telephone on the social elements:
Even after being baptized by the patent office and given a royal reception at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition, Bell, instead of being applauded was pelted with a hailstorm of ridicule. While men of trade and commerce preferred to call it a scientific toy,. The newspapers went to the extent of describing it as 'the latest American humbug' (the London times), Salem Witchcraft , and something associated with the powers of darkness (The Providence press).The very idea of speaking to a metal piece seemed too bizarre and freakish. Since no one could understand how it worked, people saw this performance as a loss of dignity. Public Officials were slow to adopt it, as they were accustomed to use of written documents, and so was the banking community. It was only after a series of demonstrations and lectures arranged by Bell, as well as an account of a documented 3 hour demonstration, published in The Boston Advertiser (October 19, 1876), that people started taking it seriously. They realized, after several years of turmoil, that the telephone offered a hitherto unknown advantage of a 'Human Touch' to the communication. One could converse, respond to tones of voice and moods, discuss, persuade, enquire, argue and even reach agreements in a few minutes, in a personal way. It enabled members of the family to travel and even emigrate with increased security. It enabled the government to handle emergencies, like war, fires, accidents storms etc. Medical emergencies could be attended to much more efficiently. As it was having several advantages over telegraph, the businesses were in a position to handle all the issues in a more personalized way, and much faster.
The Telephone in people's homes: Reasons for the delayed entry:
The real popularity of the telephone in the home segment had to wait for more than 20 years after the invention of the