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The Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in the Middle East - Essay Example

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The Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in the Middle East

Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) increases considerably the risk for all manifestations of atherosclerotic vascular disease, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease(Payorala, 1987) The underlying mechanisms for accelerated atherogenesis in NIDDM are poorly understood. Although NIDDM is associated with a clustering of risk factors favoring atherogenesis (high total triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and a high prevalence of hypertension and obesity), population-based, prospective studies have repeatedly shown that only a small proportion of the excess risk for coronary heart disease in NIDDM can be explained by the effects of NIDDM on the levels of cardiovascular risk factors(Payorala, 1987) Therefore, the excessive occurrence of coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular complications in NIDDM must be mainly caused by diabetes itself or factors related to it. Type 2 diabetes is the most prevalent form of diabetes and is due to the combination of insulin resistance and defective secretion of insulin by pancreatic b-cells. (Grundy, Benjamin, Burke, Chait, Eckel , Howard, Mitch, Smith , & Sowers.,1999)Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease. Metabolic control and duration of type 2 diabetes are important predictors of coronary heart disease (ischaemic heart disease. (Kuusisto J, Mykkanen L, Pyorala K, & Laakso M.,1994)

Introduction/Background to the issue: During the past 20 years, major socio-demographic changes have occurred in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (Alwan A, King H , 1992) The total population of the Region has almost doubled. The birth rate has remained high but infant and childhood mortality rates and the crude death rate have decreased. Life expectancy has improved dramatically, urbanization has occurred and per capita income has increased. The ...Show more

Summary

Summary: Diabetes is a common endocrine disease and its complications are major stimuli for the enhancement of efforts towards its control. There are currently 119.2 million people with type 2 diabetes worldwide, and the number is expected to increase to 212.9 million, in the year 2011 (Bloomgarden1998)…
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