He established Chicago Laboratory School, one of the first of its kind, to test his educational theories and their social implications. Let us find out more about his contributions and their impact in the society.
John Dewey: I have developed several educational theories for the purpose of having better and more efficient teaching methods. Ever since, I have been against authoritarian methods of teaching and I believe that teachers should have a greater role than just teaching or merely educating the students- they should be role models who also inspire the youth who are under their supervision. I also believe that including things that interest children the most is a better motivation than using rewards and punishments in teaching.
I have come up with something that I refer to as informal education which promotes the involvement and exposure of students to activities that could help them gain experience, and stimulate their thinking skills and be able to reflect on the significance of the undergone activities. This way, learning will be more than just fun and amusing, but also something that could better prepare the students for the future. The learning theory I have developed came to be known as functionalism and it encouraged mental testing and stressed studies of adaptive behavior (Clark, 1999).
Interviewer: John Dewey, indeed has contributed much to the development of instructional technology. The educational theory he has developed is still used in a lot of educational institutions today. And after having understood Mr. Dewey's contribution, it is now time to look at the case in another perspective and learn about another leader in the field. Here is the man who supported Mr. Dewey's theory of functionalism and has strongly advocated educational measurement, Mr. Edward L. Thorndike. What do you think are your most important contributions to instructional technology
Edward Thorndike: First of all, I have fought for my belief that instruction should pursue specified and socially useful goals. And in addition to what has already been mentioned, I have supported John Dewey's functionalism theory and have added a stimulus-response component and called it connectionist, which has become an educational requirement. Also, I am one of the pioneers of active learning that flouted the use of lectures in thinking. Like a lot of other theorists, I don't believe that lectures are effective methods as these limit the interaction to trying to make the student understand a lecture without the assurance that he will be able to comprehend and retain what have been discussed. So instead, I have devised some conditions to maximize learning. One is the law of effect which states that recurrence of a response depends on the consequence or effect, in the form of reward or punishment. Another is the law of recency which states that the most recent response is likely to govern the recurrence. Lastly, the law of exercise which states that the stimulus-response associations are strengthened through repetition.
One of the well-known theories that I have developed is the "Identical Elements Theory of the Transfer of Training" where the amount of transfer between the familiar and the unfamiliar one is determined by the number of elements that the two situations have in common (Clark, 1999).
Interviewer: While Mr. Thorndike focused on maximizing active learning and educational meas
Interviewer: Through the years, Instructional Technology has developed, been popularized and involved more and new theories about effectual methods of education and learning. Since the 1920s, people, scientists, psychologists and others have come, gone and contributed to the continuous development of this field…
However, it is only in today’s age of massive information explosion that both students and teachers are mandated to understand and use the technology in order to enhance teaching and learning. Although students are constantly using technology in a social environment such as their use of cell phones or social networking using the technology to learn is a completely new element.
The author states that in the faculty of nursing/healthcare, programs are divided into three main parts i.e. management, theory and practice. The theoretical part can be tutored through online functions like online blackboard in the Monash University. Students take lecture notes and assignments from the online blackboard.
Howard Gardner developed a multiple intelligence theory in which he contends that everyone has multiple intelligences. He claims that through addressing these multiple intelligences, especially in students, it is possible to improve education. The paper will discuss five of Gardner’s multiple intelligences and show ways in which each can be enhanced by using technology.
A democratic approach is one whereby learners are provided with an interactive environment where they can express their views, opinions, suggestions and have an opportunity to support their arguments. It is involves both the teacher and the learner where the teacher comes up with the topic to be discussed which is open to any form of criticisms or additions to the main point.
Upon entering the restaurant, the students will already be familiar with the basic vocabulary for ordering and the process for ordering. They will know how to use a visual dictionary. Students will be able to recognize food categories and order four courses.
However, the available evidence is quite the opposite. When correctly used, technology can stimulate unknown skills leading to better results that are motivators for students and teachers alike. One area in which technology has definitely been a boon is in the field of classroom testing.