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1) Aristotle's Politics is one of the most influential and enduring texts of political philosophy in all of history. Aristotle argued that the best attainable regime is a polity, the regime which "is neither democracy nor oligarchy, but the one midway between them." In mixing oligarchy and democracy, Aristotle believes that one can avoid the negative effects of either regime in its pure form while preserving the positive aspects of those regimes "democracy exists when the free and poor, being a majority, have authority to rule; oligarchy, when the wealthy and better born have authority and are few." For example, regarding offices one would have elections (an oligarchic element) but no propert…
Montesquieu echoes Aristotle's arguments that having the mixture of the traditional governing bodies would balance the power and authority. Further more, he references Aristotle in his book by saying; "The inhabitants of a particular town are much better acquainted with its wants and interests than with those of other places; and are better judges of the capacity of their neighbors than of that of the rest of their countrymen. The members, therefore, of the legislature should not be chosen from the general body of the nation; but it is proper that in every considerable place a representative should be elected by the inhabitants" (Montesquieu).
Aristotle, Montesquieu, and Locke all support the notion that civil society originates when, for the better administration of the law, men agree to delegate legal functions to certain officers. They are all against a "monarchy" government as it does not support a civil society. It by definition corrupts the individual who is given all of the power. ...
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