There are different levels of decision making and types of problems, different types of problems include semi-structured problem, structured problem and unstructured problem. For every type of problem there is a different level of decision to be taken and there is a different solution of each type of problem. Normally structured problem as easily solved as compared to the semi structure and un-structured problems, the reason for that the problem identification is easy because the problem is well structured.
The process through which humans resolve and perceive the distance between a current situation and a decided goal is called problem solving process. A person has to first identify the obstacles which he or she will face to reach to the desired goal and after analytical thinking a person can overcome these hurdles. (Hicks, 2004) When humans find a solution to a specific problem, they store this information in their memories to use them for future situations. When we closely analyze then we come to know that the steps involved in both decision making and problem solving are identical and sometimes we use these terms interchangeably. (Skyttner, 2005)
The purpose of the input phase is to have a clear understanding of a particular situation; we first recognize the problem or set of problems so that we have a clear picture in our mind. By identifying a problem means that we know to distance between a present situation and our desired goal. The identification process of any problem is very important to talk to our selves and others. Normally we face four common types of situations. (Adair, 2007)
1. A situation in which we know that something is wrong and we need to correct it.
2. A situation in which we perceive something to be a real threat and we have to prevent it from happening.
3. A situation in which we simply accept the needs and invitations.
4. A situation in which we see something is really missing and it should be provided.
The Processing Phase
The role of the processing phase is to develop a task first and then evaluate the given task and later choose the solutions and alternatives to solve any specific problem. The main thing in this phase is that we develop possible solutions for any problem. Researchers believe that the people who utilize their time properly using this phase will help them to think of many different solutions for any given problem. The processing phase also requires brainstorming to solve any problem or just to start the problem solving process. Brainstorming can be defined as an excellent technique to start the problem-solving and decision making process. Brainstorming helps people in categorizing different problems and find solutions accordingly. (Adair, 2007)
The Output Phase
The output phase is the one in which a complete plan is created and the found solution to any given problem is implemented completely. When making a plan the important thing is that the plan should be in detail in order to be successfully implemented but different techniques for evaluation must be developed. (Adair, 2007)