Other art forms carried the period into the second half of the nineteenth century. This extended chronological spectrum (1770-1870) also permits recognition as Romantic the poetry of Robert Burns and William Blake in England, the early writings of Goethe and Schiller in Germany, and the great period of influence for Rousseau's writings throughout Europe. 1
One of Ludwig van Beethoven's critiques wrote of his work, referring to the third symphony, as having romantic elements --powerful melodies and dramatic intensity.2 Barry Cooper, a noted Beethoven scholar, commented on The Choral Fantasy as having "a Romantic wilderness that easily obscures its ingeniously created design."3 He was speaking of the fact that The Choral Fantasy when it was first performed was done spontaneously. It stopped and restarted on more than one occasion. This is because Beethoven only wrote the full score a year later. 4 He was playing the Fantasy from the heart. As he was quoted saying, "I must write, for what weighs on my heart, I must express."5
Romanticism is a manner of self expression that comes from the heart. It must be spontaneous, using powerful melodies and creating dramatic intensities. This illusion of romantic wilderness is beautiful.
Anne K. Anne K. Mellor a known critique of Mary Shelley notes one of the general themes of Frankenstein as "uncontrolled scientific advancement causes destruction."6 Man uses science to try to make a human being, and thus conquer nature.7 Instead a monster was created. Shelley explores the concept of what is beautiful and ugly. She concludes that the concept of what is beautiful is defined by society and to them Frankenstein is not. He is ugly, a monster. Shelley's reaction to this concept is expressive of her innermost feelings. She also shows negative sentiments about the way women were being restricted to the domestic realm. She does this by murdering many of the female characters.8 Mellor also points this out as one of the general themes of the novel.9
Romanticism is the expression of artists' inner feelings. The work should mirror the artists' vision of the world and be the instrument of the artists' imagination.10
The Social Contract written by Jean Jacques Roussau has as its theses, which can be found at the first sentence of the essay: "Man is born free but everywhere is in chains." He expounds on the nature of freedom. For him, "natural human beings are born completely self-sufficient and self-governing. But needing to interact with others, humans are forced to give up their liberties. He enters into a "social contract" in which the governed agree to be ruled only so that their rights, property and happiness must be protected by their rulers. Once rulers cease to protect the ruled, the social contract is broken and the governed are free to choose another set of governors or magistrates.11 He writes this in passionate rhetoric and is an expression of how he views the relationship of men with the state.
Romanticism is the reaction of the writer to what he sees around him.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote a work rich in contradictions and conflicts, entitled Faust: A Tragedy. "It is a Romantic masterwork precisely because it explores a wide variety of polar opposites without resolving them.