Bias and heuristics may seem as immaterial and significant but they may have great effects on the decisions or choices a person makes. The decision-maker may not be aware of it, but certain biases or heuristics may already be influencing the way he looks at the situation at hand…
In the scenario presented, the supervisor clearly demonstrates bias when he uttered his statements regarding the Volvo and its unreliability. To be more specific, the supervisor's heuristic or bias was the availability bias or error.
According to the Wikipedia Encyclopedia, the availability bias is described as, "The distortion of one's perceptions of reality due to the tendency to remember one alternative outcome of a situation much more easily than another." (2006) Furthermore, one's judgment about the relative frequency of an event often depends upon the availability or accessibility of objects or events in the processes of perception, memory or construction in the imagination
In the case of the supervisor, he only recalled the bad experience of his brother-in-law. He failed to take into account the experiences of the larger group of people who may have had experiences different from that of his brother-in-law.
The reaction of the supervisor also demonstrates another bias. In particular, this is the base rate neglect bias. The base rate neglect, otherwise known as the base rate fallacy, explains how humans, in making inferences about probability, often tend to ignore the background frequencies. (Garns, 1997)
In the case of the supervisor, this was clearly demonstrated because he failed to take into consideration the various reviews that were presented to him. He instead focused on one occurrence of the failure of a Volvo car. By doing so, the supervisor neglected the numerous data that supports the good performance of Volvo cars. He was influenced by the base rate neglect which led him to react in the way that he did.
With further research suggesting that the initial recommendations regarding the superiority and reliability of the Volvo, one will one be led to deciding that the Volvo should be the car to buy. In making decisions, it is imperative that biases or heuristics are avoided as much as possible. Decision-makers must at all times remain as objective and logical as possible.
Biases and heuristics affect the way people view situations and choices. In certain cases, heuristics simplify the decision-making process by making the situation appear simpler. However, there are cases when heuristics, when viewed in the wrong way, may lead erroneous judgments or decisions.
With additional information supporting the earlier claim that the Volvo is the better choice, the main heuristic that one must employ is the representativeness heuristic. According to Garns, "An event is judged to be probable to the extent that it represents the essential features of the parent population or of its generating process." In other words, what this means is that a certain sample of the population has the essential features in order for it to be judged as representative of the entire population. In this case, the information gathered through further research may be used to judge the entire population of Volvo cars. Using such a sample as basis for judgment, one can conclude that Volvo cars are indeed reliable and mechanically superior over other brands.
Knowing that the supervisor is insensitive to the base rate and judges based on available information, one possible course of action that maybe taken in order to convince him to agree to the purchase of Volvo cars is to present him with all substantial information. It is essential that the available information that the supervis ...
Cite this document
(“Bias and Heuristics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/284608-bias-and-heuristics
(Bias and Heuristics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words)
“Bias and Heuristics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/284608-bias-and-heuristics.
This paper seeks to discuss the concept of bias and the underlying mechanisms that foster bias in the media. In addition, it outlines relevant theories and concepts that facilitate bias including Elaboration Likelihood Model, Heuristic-Systematic Model, and agenda-setting, priming, and framing.
Unconscious Bias The article entitled “The case for behavioral strategy” written by Lovallo and Sibony (2010) and published in the McKinsey Quarterly on March 2010 focuses on the role of subconscious cognitive biases, defined as “systematic tendencies to deviate from rational calculations” (Lovallo and Sibony, 2010, par.
This means one has to understand the consumer decision-making process. This could require an extensive research involving interviews or questionnaires administered to a large group of people. However, exhaustive research is not practical or organizations may not afford to spend large amounts of resources on every issue.
Attitudes therefore influence the relationship of people for the perceived people or events. People form attitudes about other people and other environmental elements depending on the predisposing environmental factors around them. In short, they are often assumptions about the other people that subsequently influence the interaction among people.
Looking at the facts of the case, Linda's profile makes it natural for us decision-makers to choose Option 2 rather than Option 1. However, the argument that the probability of Linda being a banker and activist is indeed a remote one, which allows for Option 2 to be the most plausible.
Generally beliefs concerning the uncertain events are expressed by statements like "I think thator chances are etc. These are sometimes expressed in numerical form as odd or subjective probabilities. Heuristics are simple, efficient rules, fine-tuned by evolutionary processes or learned, which have been proposed to explain how people make decisions, judgments and solve problems, typically when facing serious problems or in case of inadequate information(Tversky, Kahneman,1124).
First, it begins with the selection of a jury. In this case, the defense determines the whether the case fits either a jury or judge. However, under some jurisdictions, both the defense and the prosecution may demand the right for a jury trial. On
could attempt to identify the amount of impact that stereotype-based heuristics on their own practice by obtaining second opinions from other professionals, especially those who are likely to have been exposed to a different cultural background. In order to mitigate this issue,
The aspect of bias presents itself in a way during decision making processes in which case a person is inclined or holds an . This is factored in a way that the person fails or refuses to consider that there are issues of merit to be considered in the decision making process where alternative views could possibly work out very effectively.
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Essay on topic Bias and Heuristics for FREE!