The author the paper provides the information concerning the ways of detecting breast cancer in women under the age of 50. Reportedly, the two most popular methods used for screening breast cancer today, are Contrast Enhance Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Digital Mammography…
8.2 Recommendation for further research ............49
9.0 References ..........52
10.0 Bibliography ..........61
11.0 Appendices ........63
Appendix 1 Letter to the Department Manager...64
Appendix 2 Letter to the Ethics Committee66
Appendix 3 Questionnaire for the interview of
Appendix 4 Abbreviations...69
The two most popular methods used for screening breast cancer today, are Contrast Enhance Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Digital Mammography. Each method has it's own distinct advantages over the other and also lags behind in certain areas when compared with the other.
This study will compare and contrast these two methods by using the tests on a sample population in the specific age group of women below 50 years of age and recording them in an organised fashion. At the completion of the research, I propose to conclusively find which method is better at detecting breast cancer in women under the age of 50 years and to support this conclusion with results gathered through the research conducted.
The objective of this research project is to develop a better understanding of the appropriate use of MRI and Digital Mammography in detecting breast cancer in women under the age of 50. The report also discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each method.
The major issues faced were:
1) Identifying the timing of breast cancer screening for women under age 50.
2) Regular screening involved higher costs without a clear...
One out of eight women in the developing world is estimated to develop breast cancer at some stage of their lives (Nkondjock, & Ghadirian, 2005).Mortality caused by breast cancer is especially high among women between the ages of forty and forty-nine. Early, accurate detection leading to effective and less drastic treatment methods can significantly reduce the trauma associated with breast cancer, resulting in better prognosis and management of the disease (Taft & Taylor, 2001).
Mammography, one of the earliest methods of breast cancer screening (responsible for a 34% decrease in mortality rate among women) was subsequently found to have not detected 25% of malignant Breast cancers in early stages, thus creating a need for a better screening procedure (Taft & Taylor, 2001).
Among the numerous diagnostic tools developed using new technology, FFDM and MRI offered prospects of better efficacy in the detection of breast cancer, especially critical for women aged below fifty since they tend to have denser breasts, which impair the capability of the diagnostic tools, particularly in the case of noncalcified breast cancers. The risk of malignancy is at the same time higher in dense breasts, making early detection even more important.
Magnetic Resonance images are created by recording the signals generated after radio frequency excitation of hydrogen nuclei (or other elements) in tissue exposed to a strong static magnetic field. The characteristics of these signals vary according to the type of tissue under observation. ...
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The target series of compounds was produced through reductive amination between four amines and a dialdehyde produced from α-D-glucopyranose. The amines that were used in the project are: butyl amine, benzyl amine, L-phenylalanine and Tyrosine-OMe.
This summary briefly encloses smoking as one of the major risk factor for the decease lung cancer, but the major focus is on the outcome of smoking on diagnosis or recurrence of a second primary cancer; molds of continued and quitting smoking in patients with cancer. This data will help health experts caring for patients for the period of and subsequent to treatment.
Breast cancer can be identified as a health issue commonly faced by women. However, it can be mentioned that the diagnosis and the treatment of breast cancer had been a part of medical culture since ancient ages which can be dated back to the pyramid age during 3000-2500 BC (Donegan, 2005).
About 1.6% of female deaths per year are attributed to breast cancer (Parkin, et.al., 2005). It is a major public health issue in high-resource regions and seems to be becoming a major problem in low-resource areas as well with prevalence rates increasing by about 5% each year (Parkin, et.al., 2005).
Most importantly, the study stresses the progression of cancer, by means of metastasis. After which, the research elaborated the principle of ion channels and its function within the body. It then associates the role that ion channels contribute to the development of cancer cells within the body, and what particular ion channels can be exploited to hinder the growth and proliferation of mutated genes.
Where the nature of violence is most often clearly divided between a victim and an aggressor, the concept of gender relationships provides a more complicated context in which to discuss the events of violence. The following study has been designed through qualitative research.
Even though this particular breast reconstruction technique is fairly safe, some of the postoperative breast cancer patients who had mastectomy and LD flap breast reconstruction are complaining about myofascial pain and lower extremities dysfunction. Up to the present time, there is no existing research study that has tried to discuss and identify the main factors that causes myofascial pain and lower extremities dysfunction after going through LD flap breast reconstruction.
There are about 48,000 women who fall prey to this disease in the country each year (Breast Cancer (Female), 2012). Further, about half of the affected population are women over the age of 50. On the other hand, the disease also affects younger women. Breast cancer in men is less common at a rate of one in every 100,000 males (Breast Cancer in Men, 2011).
Regardless of widespread measures to encourage an early/ timely detection of breast cancer, estimations reveal that 20 to 30 percent of women hang around for a period of 3 months prior to seeking help from an allied health professional (AHP), for the symptoms of breast cancer (Heisey et al., 2011).
Effects of oil spill are a factor of component hydrocarbons that have different effects on fish. Susceptibility to the pollution is for example inversely proportional to age of fish. The degree of saltiness of inhabited water, temperature, availability of nutrients and health condition of a type of fish also determines effects of a spill’s contamination.
2 Pages(500 words)Dissertation
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