A situation that she believes is leaving little facility to implement or measure the impact of the adoption of technology in special education curriculums.
Determining what influences achievement of students in special education who have used technology over those who have not requires first the identification of technology use, methodology and evaluation measures used. At the same time, there is an equal need to develop performance standards that will be able to attribute variance in performance directly with the use of the technology. It should be noted that the correlation between students' technological competency is not to be equated with student proficiency or achievement. Therefore, determining variance in proficiency or achievement among students due to the utilization of technology should entail control over the type of curriculum, students or instructors (Gardner et al, 2003). Concentrating on special education students, studies will also need to account for the client conditions and health.
Subsequently, there is also a need to identify what factors may limit the impact of technology use from socio-cultural, political, economic or medical perspectives. Moreover, there is also a need to account for the nature of technology adaptation itself such as productivity paradoxes, rates of adaptation and competency requirements among others ("Technology and Education", 2006). The technology-focused educational reform emerged as major agenda in the 1990's. Initial programs were designed as support social services but eventually, efforts became the prerogative of educational institutions. Programs transitioned from general programs to enhance the well-being of vulnerable groups identified through schools then became more specific to individuals' area of concern, developing services specific for physical, psychological, learning or socio-cultural concerns (Crain et al. 1990). Subsequent services were further refined under special education provisions wherein technology was primarily used to assess conditions or to augment intervention strategies particularly for communication and skill building (Schlosser et al, 1995).
The efforts have been part of long term studies indicating that interventions for children with special need benefit significantly from community and familial reinforcement (Cuvo & Klatt, 1992). Thus, the modes of technology adoption for special education programs have extended from educational institutions which has resulted the highlight of communication and information networking. One major challenge however is that actual programs for students often access to innovative programs are difficult to develop and maintain which creates limitation to access or long-time participation in programs (Crain et al, 1990; Quinn, 2003). Therefore, though the was significant growth in the utilization of technology, there is a need to qualify whether efforts are directly or indirectly affect special education students' performance and whether variances are be considered qualifiers between performance of students who are able to use technological tools in special education classes (Gardner et al, 2003).
According to the opinion of Paramore and Higbee (2005), the child's exposure