Introduction to Computer Networks TCPIP

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To handle heterogeneity, IP defines IP datagram 1 (Uniform packet format) and a packet transfer mechanism. IP also defines a set of addresses that allow applications and higher layer protocols to communicate across heterogeneous networks without knowing the differences in hardware addresses used by the underlying network systems.


If IP works so well, why a need is felt to change The primary motivation for change arises from the limited address space. When IP was defined, only a few compute networks existed. The designers decided to use 32 bits for an IP address because doing so allowed the Internet to include over a million networks. However, with a rapid exponential growth in the global Internet, the primary motivation for defining a new version of IP arose from the address space limitation, as larger addresses are necessary to accommodate continued growth of the Internet. Besides addressing, the most common problems faced by the TCP/IP were routing and connectivity issues.
Secondary motivations for changes in IP have risen from new Internet applications. For example, applications that deliver audio and video need to deliver data at regular intervals. To keep such information flowing through the Internet without disruption, IP must avoid changing routes frequently. Although the current IP datagram header includes a field that can be used to request a type of service, the protocol did not define a type of service that can be used for real-time delivery of audio and video. New applications are being developed that require more complex addressing and routing capabilities. ...
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