The enforcement procedure of Article 228 (2) ECT is in dire need of reform. Discuss this statement in the light of the existing case law of the ECJ.

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The European Union is largely self-regulating in the sense that it is in the interests of Member States to implement its primary and secondary legislation if they wish the Union to continue; it is primarily a union of economic and political interests. To a certain extent this may explain the benign legislation available through which the Commission can enforce compliance from Member States…

Introduction

Indeed in Francovich & Boniface v Italy [1993]3 the ECJ stated that 'Community law lays down a principle according to which a Member State is liable to make good damage to individuals caused by a breach of Community law for which it is responsible'.
The Commission is empowered to bring enforcement actions under Article 226. Article 228 provides the remedy for an Article 226 action. Steiner and Woods et al4 argue that the ability to bring Member States to book for non-compliance is 'vital for the success of the Community' as it ensures both effective implementation of European Community law and 'illustrates certain supranational elements in the Community structure.'
In order to ensure the proper functioning and development of the common market, the Commission shall: -- ensure that the provisions of this Treaty and the measures taken by the institutions pursuant thereto are applied.
If the Commission considers that a Member State has failed to fulfil an obligation under this Treaty, it shall deliver a reasoned opinion on the matter after giving the State concerned the opportunity to submit its observations.
A 'failure' can be an act or an omission to act to prevent an infringement by any agency of the State, even if that agency is constitutionally independent: Case 77/69 Commission v Belgium [1970]5. ...
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