In 1740 the machine with the cylinder in length of 2,74 m and diameter of 76 cm during one day performed the work which brigades of 25 person and 10 horses, working in shifts, were carrying out for a week. Nevertheless, machine of Newcomen was far from perfection. It transformed to mechanical energy only about 1% of thermal energy and as a consequence, devoured huge amount of fuel, that, however, had no special value when the machine worked on collieries.
About the invention of Newcomen it is possible to say, that it was really steam machine, more truly, the pair atmosphere machine. Therefore the inventor of the steam machine is the Englishman Thomas Newcomen who has developed the pair atmosphere machine in 1712.
During same time in England James Uatt also worked on the creation of the steam machine. Debugging the model of the pair atmosphere Newcomen's machines, Uatt was convinced of low efficiency of similar machines.
It was clear, that the basic lack of machine of Newcomen was the heating and cooling of the cylinder. Uatt removed this lack. Subsequently the universal steam engine of double action with continuous rotation (Uatt's steam machine) received a wide circulation and played a significant role in transition to a mechanical production.
Since 1800 to 1821 Northern war was held. ...
Since 1800 to 1821 Northern war was held. So the further development of railway transportation was stopped for some time. But steam machines which were created at the end of 18 centuries had the big popularity.
Modern safe position of railways of Northern America is caused by unprecedented growth of freight traffic. This situation promotes also to rise in branch of manufacture of a rolling stock as the railway companies increase transportation capacities.
Since then the financial position of the large companies has become stronger, demand for their services exceeds the offer. These changes bring favorable prospects to the railway companies.
For many railway companies of Northern America the last years were successful from the point of view of growth of transportations and, hence, incomes. The stage-by-stage decision of these problems and a general economic situation allowed the bases for positive forecasts of Northern America railways development. (Orme 2000)
Prospects of cargo railways of Northern America are determined by two tendencies: proceeding economic rise in the countries of continent and globalization of economy. High rates of economic growth in the USA as a whole - 44,2 % since 1980 - have caused a significant gain of demand for services of a truck transport. And the parameter for railways in the the USA, 52 %, is better than the general parameter that has allowed to increase its share in the market from 35 up to 39 %. (Orme 2000)
Railways have already confirmed the ability to correspond to significant economic growth. Within the next two decades 50 % growth of the transport market is expected.
This gain can be mastered both by the rail, and motor transport. Railway has preconditions for development of throughput and ability to take with smaller