The university is reviewing the other models to see if they better portray the leadership in military. 1
In USA the knowledgeable and effective school leaders are extremely important. This is to determine the technology use and to understand of learning of the students. These two issues need the leadership qualities in principals and teachers. The administrators used to feel uncomfortable about the leadership qualities, but the removal of uncertainty implemented effective technology and leadership qualities. This is by developing own knowledge about technology, discipline, management, learning and understanding. Technology has been a significant factor in the above factors. 2
According to Heifetz the leadership is a change or adaptive process. This is for addressing the conflicts in the values people hold. This can diminish the gap between the different values of the people. This makes them stand for the facts they have to face. In the past the views of the leadership involved managerial or operational functions. Now the discipline, learning and understanding has to be involved in them to make teachers, principals and educational leaders to guide the student community towards the changing times without or with minimum conflict. This is due to the fact that the American education cannot continue as usual with the systems from 70's. The previous system produced managers but not leaders who can take care of curriculum, instruction and assessment. When the education is concentrating only on management and not on learning and understanding, the principals, teachers and educational personalities cannot be good leaders to resolve the conflicts in the education system. After 1980 the data driven decision making came to the fore. The test results and school design were the chief topics and professional development workshops evolved. The system sought the school leaders to be instructional. This focused on staff, students and parents to concentrate on student learning that is emphasized by effective teaching.
School leaders were exhorted to become instructional leaders and focus the staff, students, and parents on student learning by emphasizing effective teaching and learning strategies, use of data for decision making, parental involvement in schools, and more. In the present situation the administrators in educational institutions are managing operations of the institutions focusing on student learning, standards, high stakes accountability and performance assessments. These include the restructuring efforts. This resulted in the excessive work loads for the administrators, teachers and students as it resulted in shifting from operational to instructional leadership.
The following is the quote of Lasway and Mazzarella and Grundy in 1995.
"At a minimum, we can be sure they [school districts] want someone who can
carry out a long list of specific duties. The new principal will be expected to
arrange class schedules, resolve discipline problems, administer a labor contract,
evaluate teachers, and apply the oil of public relations to points of friction
with the community. And that's just in the morning."
This is a follow up of the emphasis laid on standards based school leadership in 1990s. Though the focus on the standards is convincing, there is a current need for renewal of focus on