Schizophrenia is a psychic behavioural disorder characterized by typical impairments in the perception and expression of reality with significant social or occupational dysfunction. A person suffering from schizophrenia demonstrates disorganized thinking and experiences delusions or auditory hallucinations.Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug widely used in refractory Schizophrenia…
This study is an attempt to explore the possibility of obtaining a positive correlation with dose, effects and side effects of the drug using EEG recording so that a minimum and maximum dose range of the drug can be obtained for effective treatment of Schizophrenia.
Clozapine is a tricyclic dibenzodiazepine derivative 8-chloro-11- (4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-5H-dibenzo [b, e] [1,4] diazepine. It is available as 25mg and 100 mg tablets for oral administration. Clozapine is widely used in refractory Schizophrenia. There seems to be a cultural and geographical variations in dose response relationship and tolerability to the drug making the dose response unpredictable. The effective and tolerable range is between 100 mg to 900 mg, which makes it difficult to make a predictive, significant and valid correlation. There has been no positive correlation with serum level too. Thus, there is a need to search for a clinically viable and simple method for growth response monitoring of the drug. The present study is an attempt to evolve such a method. Thus, the study focuses on the effect of clozapine on EEG pattern of the Schizophrenia. patients to explore the possibility of obtaining a positive correlation with dose, effects and side effects so that a minimum and maximum dose range of the drug can be obtained for effective treatment of Schizophrenia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was done in the year 2000 at a tertiary care center. This open level prospective cohort naturalistic study was done on patients selected randomly after informed consent.50 patients referred to clozapine therapy were studied for a period of three months. A conventional 10 channel EEG with international 10-20 system of montages was recorded during a fixed time of 5-7 PM at baseline, 4, 8 and 12 weeks.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Any attempt on obtaining a correlation of EEG data with clozapine dose response should be substantiated by a review of current research findings on clozapine therapy associated EEG abnormalities to evaluate the relevance and significance of the recorded data. Electroencephalogram (EEG) slowing has been shown to be associated with clozapine side effects and can be used as a marker to predict treatment response during clozapine treatment.
(Wichniak A et.al, 2005). Patients with schizophrenia have been found to show N1, P3 and Late Slow Wave abnormalities indicating impairment in early stimulus evaluation and subsequent working memory functions. Subsequent treatment with clozapine seem to have induced normalization of the P3 and Late Slow Waves, indicating improvement in working memory updating and executive processing. There also seems to be a partial normalization of N1 amplitude, suggesting improvement in early stimulus evaluation. ( Galletly CA et.al ,2005). In patients treated with electro convulsive therapy along with parallel administration of antipsychotic ...
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(“Schizophrenia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words”, n.d.)
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(Schizophrenia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words)
“Schizophrenia Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/miscellaneous/285669-schizophrenia-essay.
Although it occurs in women as much as men, the illness peaks in women in the 20s and early 40s. It is a disabling disease in that the normal functioning of persons suffering from it is hampered. It develops very slowly that detection cannot be made but when it appears, it worsens fast.
The term schizophrenia is of Greek origin and means split mind. Schizophrenia is caused by a combination of factors including genetics, brain chemistry, and environment. It is a chronic disease which cannot be cured although proper treatment can help keep it under control.
John Nash has undergone different phases of delusions during his life span because of various reasons. John Nash was an intelligent person who had excellent academic qualification in Economics and Mathematics. He spent majority of time for finding out unique things like mathematical theorems.
In most instances, the disorders have no cure. Due to this, medical practitioners focus on treatment which eases and lessens the effects of these disorders. In other instances, there are mild cases of brain disorders symptoms. In this scenario, the conditions are reversible.
The disorder is complex in nature where the causes are difficult to obtain. However it has been considered that genetic factors are responsible for the occurrence of the disorder (Schizophrenia, 2010). The present study focuses on the schizophrenia disorder discussing its symptoms and the genetic basis of the disorder.
The mentally ill are also not viewed in a positive light and they are often considered as a danger to society, of as individuals who must be feared or who must be segregated from the rest of normal society. In the years since mental health advancements in diagnosis and treatment have been seen, the connotations and perceptions of the mentally ill have somehow changed.
However, at the other plane, certain small limitations can spoil the entire life, make an individual totally unfit for the social realm and confuse others with their abnormal or unconventional behaviors. When our mind can react in what way is the most unpredictable aspect of human body.
The findings of these studies practically show that there is a vast number of inconsistent or abnormal discoveries about schizophrenia. High-risk individuals and medically recovered patients have high levels of neurological test anomaly, showing that neurological disorder is not only an indicator of ongoing mental illness (Pincus & Tucker 2003, 106).
Antipsychotic medication has been reported to be effective in treating schizophrenia. Unfortunately, many individuals with the disorder do not adhere to their prescribed course of therapy, which leads to a considerable deterioration in the potential of antipsychotic medication.
Brekke, J.S.; Long, J.; Nesbitt, N.; and Sobel, E. The impact of service characteristics on functional outcomes from community support programs for persons with schizophrenia: A growth curve analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65:464-^75, 1997.
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