Though, we are in the middle of a recession period these days, but if we recollect the events unfolding couple of years back, it becomes abundantly clear that the policies of globalisation and liberalisation resulted in many more opportunities for the skilled workers around the world. This resulted in high levels of turnover ratios, particularly in the IT industry. The industry had to eventually think about innovative measures to reduce the turnover ratio and retain the employees. Quoting the figures from a study HR.com (2008) states that on account of economic pressures and an evolving workforce; the voluntary as well as total turnover intentions have seen consistent increase over the last four years. The study indicates that the voluntary turnover intention has seen a more prominent increase.
Employee turnover results in multiple impacts for the organisation. When an employee all of a sudden decides to leave a company and join another one, offering better facilities, pay packages etc. then the parent stand to lose by way of;
The generally held belief is that life at the working place leaves a big impact on the levels of motivation of the worker. Motivation in simplest terms can be defined as a means of providing motives. Motives can act towards doing a job more efficiently or for distorting the work environment. Quite often the lack of any positive motivation by the managers also results in an automatic provisioning of negative motivation. Mullins (2005) contends that organisations comprise 'people, objectives, structures' and 'management'. While objectives and structure depend upon the manner in which management wishes to work and do not require regular updating, the people require more attention on a regular basis.
There are a number of determinants towards shaping the working environment within an organisation. The factors are both internal and external to the organisation. Internal factors will include the strengths of the organisation, in terms of its finances, human resources, management, strategies etc. These factors can be controlled well by the organisation. On the other hand the external factors like the legal and political scene prevailing within the state/ country of its operations, number and types of competitors, suppliers in the market, terms and conditions from financial institutions, alternative products available in the market, newer technological innovations etc. On these factors the organisation may not be able to exert much control. This study is therefore an attempt to take a look at all such factors which affects the quality of work life and how this quality of work life impacts the turnover intentions of the individual.
2. Preliminary Literature Review
The search for better ways of retaining the employees to counter the increasing turnover intentions and dysfunctional consequences of job designs based on traditional principles began with the