This is because there are genuine uncertainties in both physical and social systems. Nuclear scientist is obliged to (1) take extreme care about current projects and possible impact of their outcomes on environment. It is important to (2) produce "maps" of danger, deprivation, disease and despair, so that the social justice aspects of all this are formally taken into account long-range sitting plans take these maps into account and explicitly incorporate risk-avoidance measures. (3) Precaution presents a case for science type structure of interdisciplinary science, upon government, more complete communication, and dialogues between judgment of possible outcomes and cost-effectiveness calculations of various courses of action. In this case responsibilities mean more than simply passing moral judgment about what should and should not be done in a particular situation. Risk management is part of the (4) conscious decisions nuclear scientists make about the directions and consequences of the decisions. It is a link between morality, responsibility, and risk assessment. In this situation, the staff should work together taking into account threats and consequences of their studies for the humanity (Doherty, 2000). For a nuclear scientist, risk management requires (5) flexible technologies arranged with diversity. It is possible to consider its lead time, unit size, capital intensity and need for infrastructure; and, if it threatens to be highly inflexible, then decision-makers should consider ways in which flexibility might be enhanced, through shortening the lead time, or reducing the scale, capital intensity, or need for infrastructure. This is a central aspect of any satisfactory account of risk management for nuclear scientist.
(1) Job security is one of the main responsibilities of engineers which deal with research process and design. Their responsibilities are (2) to design the projects according to safety measures and regulations accepted by the entire organization. This would also permit greater use of (3) mediation techniques and mechanisms in risk management. Ensuring best value and managing risk are two fundamental issues involved in the delivery of engineering projects. Responsibilities of an engineer involve project safety, design and resources allocation. Precaution is essentially about extending engineering projects to the public realm, about re-ordering victim powerlessness in favor of new mechanisms of victim avoidance, and of guaranteeing buffers of protected "ecological space" or "safety" to avoid going too close to unknowable. Because precaution places the burden of proof on the risk creator to show no unreasonable harm and to build in guarantees of compensation in case of honest misjudgment, so precaution favors the would-be victims rather than the beneficiaries of risk-related decisions (Doherty, 2000). In the world of global environmental change, the full influence of precaution would be socially approved.
The lack of effective communication of risk between engineers and non-technical clients and between engineers and the general public is a major problem. No matter what approach is adopted to problem-solving (4) it is necessary to construct models, whether formal or informal. There are different attributes of models that are worth exploring; function, grounding, form, specification, applicability and