Therefore, this literature review proposes addressing the following:
Background: Use and Mechanisms: Risperidone is the most widely recommended, second-generation antipsychotic medication for schizophrenia. It blocks excess of dopamine type 2 and serotonin 5-HT2 receptors, and lack of H1 histanminergic, and alpha 2 adrenergic receptors on nerves which cause schizophrenia, by binding to the receptors (Curran & Keating, 2006; Love & Conley, 2004; Pajonk, 2004; Robson & Gray, 2007). Therefore, risperidone has effective clinical outcomes in the treatment of schizophrenia. It is more effective in reducing positive symptoms and more directly effective in decreasing the negative symptoms than the typical antipsychotics (Parjonk, 2003). Also, in a study by Marder (cited in Parjonk, 2003), it was shown that the rate of relapse and rehospitalisation of patients receiving long-term risperidone therapy is much lower than those treated with typical, and other atypical antipsychotics. In addition, it has more significantly beneficial effects on the reduction of affective symptoms, cognitive symptoms, and the improvement of patients' quality of life compared with typical antipsychotics. ...
Therefore, patients with schizoaffective disorders can be improved rapidly by the use of risperidone. Compared with typical antipsychotics, risperidone has a lower risk of adverse effects. In the investigation by Csernansky, Mahmoud, & Brenner (cited in Parjonk, 2003), it was proved that incidents of extrapyramidal side effects (EPSs) of risperidone are more reduced than those experienced with haloperidol. In particular, there is no relationship between cardiac arrest and use of risperidone; therefore, it is safer and more tolerable, reducing the cardiac risk factors.
Side Effects of the Use of Risperidone, Expressed in the Literature: In spite of the numerous beneficial effects on risperidone for patients with schizophrenia, adverse effects continue to be a considerable issue relevant to its use. The most recurrent side effects are dizziness, somnolence, insomnia, agitation, and psychosis (Curran & Keating, 2006; Love & Conley, 2004). Also, weight gain is an important side effect, which can lead to diabetes. One of the most highlighted potential adverse effects of higher dose risperidone is EPSs, such as acute dystonia, akathisia, Parkinsonism and TD. In particular; TD can contribute to dysfunction and disturbance of a patient's quality of life, such as social isolation (Courey, 2007). TD is evidenced by abnormal uncontrolled movements of face, mouth, lips, trunk and limbs, such as facial tics, tongue thrusts and rocking trunk, caused by long-term antipsychotics use. Studies have shown that prolonged use of antipsychotic medications such as risperidone may induce TD. It was believed that the relationship between risperidone and TD is due to the abnormal production or excessive growth of dopamine receptors, and highly active atoms which then damage