For example, a person in Stage 1 can understand Stage 2 reasoning but nothing beyond that. Therefore, we should present moral arguments that are only one stage ahead of a person's present level of reasoning to stimulate movement to higher stages. (Wong 2000)
According to this model, Lou may be placed within the second stage of Pre-conventional Morality, which is the Instrumental Relativist Orientation. Lou is a failure as a husband and father, and as a result of his suppressed guilt about his inability to achieve his personal goals, he see reality in terms that are relative to his personal disorientation.
with the most, she is also almost a stereotypical representation of the conventionally good daughter, wife, and mother, who is struggling to do the right thing while not being assisted by her siblings.
Georgia may be identified as belonging to stage five, Social Contract Orientation, of level three, Post-conventional morality. She finds her identity in her magazine, a fact that is clearly identified by her naming the magazine after herself. As the term indicates, this seems to be the stage where a person initiates social contract formation by conducting social transactions with others in a given society. Georgia's very name reeks of social status and impersonality.
Maddy may be seen to belong to stage one, Punishment-Obedience Orientation, of the first level, Pre-conventional Morality. She is the baby of the family, and her psychological growth seems somewhat stilted. She believes that no one takes her seriously as an actor, and this insecurity seems to prey on her life and her relationships. She seems to allow others to define her sense of self, instead of being able to define it on her own terms.
The sisters' mother, Patricia, is not given much screen time, but she is somehow defined by two aspects of her character: (a) that she walked out on her marriage and (b) that she wishes, unusually, that she had never become a mother. She may be identified as belonging to the fourth stage found in level two, Law and Order Orientation. She seems to live her life according to a sense of inherent justice, both with reference to herself and her daughters.
#2. Gilligan's levels of moral development in women.
Carol Gilligan suggested that Kohlberg's theories were prejudiced against women, since he only used case studies of men to expound his theories with. Gilligan's model perhaps offers a more sensitive look at women's experiences than Kohlberg's does.
According to Gilligan, there are three moralities that are to be found in women. Kohlberg had used the famous example of a man stealing an expensive drug to save his wife as an illustration of his model, but Gilligan theorizes that for women, conflict is created not by the interactions between women and men, but is rather the result of a conflict between self and other, suggesting a dichotomy that Kohlberg had not:
Gilligan offered that a morality of care can serve in the place of the morality of justice and rights espoused by Kohlberg. In her view, the morality of caring and