Such confusion in socio-cultural and historical bas of knowledge of a person combined with his/her personal mental bent may lead to a lot of fallible ideas about one's own manager, who similarly may be thwarted from taking an effective action due to his own mental blocks. This is the problem of perception.
Perception of a person (in an organization) may be defined as a cognitive information processing process that enables us to interpret and understand our environment.2 Hence, it explains how Perception functions through the Social Information Processing Model where it centers on the concept of bounded rationality. In such a model the perception is basically guided either by partial or selective attention, distorted through the subjects' own mental capability or the kind of meaning that he/she chooses to give to any given "raw" situation. Then the factors like memory and how they remember those given situations also influence and control perspective. Thus perceptions are victims of social generalizations, mental understanding of people's characteristics, wish-fulfillment, make the mistake from being too judgmental about a person's superficial attributes and also be selective in guiding one's understanding of another person or situation that one deems plausible.
2.1 External and Internal Causation
Attribution theory attaches two types of explanation for things that happened in the above-explained paragraph, i.e. it gives two kinds of explanation: External Attribution and Internal Attribution. Thus the question naturally arises that by knowing the kinds of attribution that people make or subordinates make, in this case, can managers control their behaviour When internal attribution is enforced or rather induced with care it is indeed easy to implement. It happens because when people make an internal attribution for their actions, they also change their attitudes and beliefs about themselves. Thus, the desired behavior follows naturally. What about the use of external attributions Through rewards and punishments, the actions only follow as long as the reward or punishment matters to the subject. The reward or punishment prevents people from making an internal attribution and thus acquires not an internally motivated habit to produce the desired behavior. Instead, they expect some external agent to cause their actions.
3.0 Perception and Managers
Subordinates may feel uncomfortable about the supervisors' possession of higher power (to make them conform to his views) and most of the time their perspectives are thus more distorted under a sense of oppression. This may reduce right