He/she also has to take into account the firm's responsibilities to the society that it operates in.
Human resource management deals with the "people" dimension in management. In their book Human Resource Management, Byars and Rue, say "Human Resource Management encompasses those activities designed to provide for and coordinate the human resources of an organization (Rue, 2000)." According to Ivancevich and Glueck, "Personnel or Human resource management is the function performed in organizations that facilitates the most effective use of people or employees to achieve organizational and individual goals (Glueck, 1995)."
Every organization is composed of people and utilizing their services, developing their skills, motivating them to enhance their levels of performance and ensuring that they remain committed to the organization are essential for the accomplishment of organizational objectives. This is true for all types of organizations - government, business, education, health, recreation and social action. Acquiring and retaining good human resources is an essential pre-condition for the success of every organization. Organizations that can do this will be both effective i.e. they will be able to achieve their goals as well as efficient i.e. they will use minimum resources necessary to achieve their goals. Inefficient or ineffective organizations face the danger of stagnating or going out of business. Competent managers and workers are essential for the coordination of efforts towards the ultimate objectives which ensure the survival of the organization. Though such coordination alone cannot guarantee success, the lack of it can lead to failure.
In the changing times, it has become evident that it is the human resources of an organization or a country that can lead it on the path of success. It is the competencies and attitudes of the human resources that can make or break a business. The business of attracting and retaining talent and nurturing it has become imperative for the development of an organization. Innovative and proactive HR managers have been defining new boundaries of HRM. The turbulent and dynamic markets and the changing values and expectations of the workforce have made the earlier concepts of personnel management irrelevant. A new strategic role has emerged for HRM - that of a key player, to make the organization survive and succeed in a highly competitive business environment.
Business has become knowledge based, service oriented, competitive and more dynamic in this new age. The quality of human resources has become an essential factor in determining the success of any organization.
In the words of Eric Flamholtz a renowned HR consultant and a Professor at Anderson Graduate School, human resources accounting is defined as "accounting people as organizational resources. Human resources accounting is measurement of the cost and value of people for an organization (Flamholtz, 1999)." Till recently, people were not accounted as resources and no value was attributed to their contribution. However, in recent times, the criticality of the contributions of human resources have been acknowledged and recognized. Hence, the concept of attributing an