This paper will analyse the impact such TOP's have on women from the perspective of different genres, facilitated by my work in gynae nursing and looking after women undergoing such medical conditions along with other gynae related ones. To enhance my understanding of this along with the needs of these women, I feel an urge to explore this issue in more detail with relevant research producing this article.
There are eight different types of miscarriages with the following five self explanatory: threatened miscarriage, incomplete miscarriage, complete miscarriage, missed miscarriage and recurrent miscarriage. Blighted Ovum occurs when the fertilized egg implants itself into the uterus but fetal development never begins. Ecotopic pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg implants itself in places other than the uterus which can cause severe maternal complications if not treated in time. The last, Molar Pregnancy, is abnormal growth of tissue within the uterus during the fertilization process. They are all generally referred to as miscarriage by most though, applicable when the fetus is lost within the first 20 weeks of gestation.
Vaginal bleeding is meant to last for a week or so, on the same pattern as a normal menstruation. Light bleeding is also an after effect, known as spotting due to the clots and/or bits of tissue. As for the normal monthly menstruation cycle, it should resume after three to six weeks though.
Symptoms of pain are usually centered around the lower abdominal area and may last up to two days, often resembling that pain during a womans' period. Breast discomfort may also be an after-effect, lasting for approximately a week in the form of engorgement or leaking milk. Some of the pregnancy hormones are also said to remain in the blood for about a month or two after the miscarriage.
Religious and Cultural
Most religions and cultures place a high value on sexual purity, privacy and modesty and the woman plays a key role due to her 'child bearer' status. In India as well as Pakistan, a womans' procreative role is a salient disappointment when failed, often leading to emotional imbalances for the weaker sex. As for small agrarian societies, the disappointment may be more pronounced due to ignorance and an anthropologically sounder footage for extremism.
To Wetzel (1982) in the article 'Miscarriage: A Special Type of Family Crisis' (1987, p. 305), "Miscarriage is a special type of dismemberment; the unborn fetus occupies a limited, semi-visible role. After the spontaneous abortion, there is usually no funeral or death ritual, but loss is felt". The vagueness of the term 'life' has led to cultural uncertainty and a lack of culturally defined rituals for the miscarriage process. In fact, hospital procedures regarding the dead fetus disallow the mother to see it and furthermore, most of them end up as remains in hospital sewage.
Thus, the unavailability of such ritualistic transitions