Most integrally local owners could now sell and trade nationally; however, that required them to now think on a national level. That rapid conceptual expansion could not be contained within the mind of even the most industrious and intelligent business owner. As a result the birth of the modern office is concomitant with the occurrence of the Industrial Revolution. The owner now had to employ people to do portions of the thinking for him or her. This meant increased bureaucracy and new methods of control had to be quickly established in order to make sure the different parts of the new business mind, decentralized and no longer localized in the head of one individual, could function efficiently. The second important feature of the Industrial Revolution is the creation of the factory system, as mass production became necessary and required to function on this national level; factories, characteristically structured and stratified, required new "scientific management" strategies in order maintain efficiency and increase profit margins as costs could easily spiral out of control in the attempt to keep up with production. This paper will briefly analyze the nature of the office and the rise of scientific management as two fundamental effects of the Industrial Revolution on business organization and operation.
The rise of the modern office was a necessar