Generally, more industrialized and economically developed societies have lower fertility than agricultural, less developed societies. Also, within countries, generally, more educated groups with higher incomes have lower fertility than less educated groups with lower incomes. Historically, as groups within countries have improved their living standards, and nations have become more economically developed, health conditions have improved, morbidity and mortality have declined, and fertility has declined due to the adoption of fertility-constraining behaviors, such as the limitation of sexual relations or marriage, practice of contraception, and resort to induced abortion."
The biggest gap between those women who are in need of infertility treatment and those who actually receive it exists because, in addition to the aforementioned issues, some women just never take the steps to seek it. This can occur for a variety of reasons. According to Ramsey (2000, pg. 1), "A lot of times, when to seek the fertility treatments depends upon a woman's age and upon her doctor. But, if a woman will seriously take control of the situation - by first seeing a doctor, preferably an obstetrician (a doctor who specializes in the care of pregnant women), before she even starts trying to conceive, to make sure she is in optimum health - is an excellent starting point. This, of course, does not guarantee success right away. This simply acts as the springboard for the road to conception."
Three causes of female infertility are functional causes, anatomic causes, and psychosocial problems. Functional problems can occur within a woman's highly complex hormonal system and cause infertility. Anatomic problems can occur within a woman's ovaries, uterus, tubes, cervix, or thyroid gland and cause infertility. The presence, either present or past, of sexually transmitted diseases in a woman's anatomy can cause infertility. Psychosocial problems can cause infertility because of stress, but more often than not, they actually occur as a result of infertility (World Health Organization, 2008).
There are a number of factors that can cause or contribute to male infertility, which as previously mentioned, makes up 30-40% of all cases of infertility. These include disorders attributed to his varicocele, disorders of his semen, abnormal or immature sperm being produced, systemic disease, sexually transmitted or other genital diseases, testicular disorders, genetic disorders, immunologic disorders, endocrine disorders, the presence of drugs or chemicals in his system, erectile dysfunction, libido problems, ejaculatory problems, age, injury, and occupation (World Health Organization, 2008).
EIA SLP 1: Policy and Advocacy
This SLP will focus on infertility in the state of Texas. This state was chosen primarily because of its size and the belief that many options would be available to a wide range of women in the state. Therefore, choosing Texas might provide a wider standpoint from which to determine exactly what options are out there on the state level for women seeking infertility treatment. Of course, this is not known to be true as of this point, but will be determined at a later