Presence of EBV will result in changes that are seen in transformation like an increase in the total number of cells abruptly, cell growth in clumps, acid production etc.
The mature infectious virus particle possesses a capsid, a nucleoid and an envelope. Linear double stranded viral DNA is present in the nucleoid. Nucleoid is surrounded by capsid made of icosahedral capsomers. The nucleocapsid is enclosed by an envelope derived from the outer or nuclear membrane of the host cell. Viral proteins constructed in the hostcell membrane before the beginning of viral assembly are also present on the envelope.
EBV is one of the most common human viruses and infects people all around the world sometime or the other during their life-time and is mostly never fatal. The virus remains dormant in the infected person for the rest of his/her life usually in the throat cells or in blood and occasionally reactivate without symptoms. Some carriers of the virus however show events of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Burkitt's lymphoma.
Human's are the known reservoir of the virus and is transmitted through saliva most commonly after which replication occurs in the cells of nasopharyngeal epithelium. Cell lysis results in the release of virions which spread to oropharyngeal lymphoid tissues and salivary glands. Infection then spreads to liver, spleen and B lymphocytes in peripheral blood. Host immune response eventually reduces the EBV infected lymphocytes as the T lymphocytes are cytotoxic to these infected B lymphocytes. A latent infection follows the primary infection as is characteristic of herpesviruses.Cellular infection is initiated by the attachment of viral particle through its major outer envelope glycoprotein to the EBV receptor CD21 on a B lymphocyte followed by internalization of EBV into cytoplasmic vesicles.Virus envelope fuses with the vesicle membrane followed by the nucleocapsid release into the cytoplasm. The genome released after the dissolution of nucleocapsid form an episome in the host cell nucleus. This may lead to a lytic infection which