StudentShare solutions
Triangle menu

SpinozaBerkeley - Essay Example

Nobody downloaded yet

Extract of sample

Infinite substance is indivisible in Spinoza's view. He argues that if infinite substance were divisible then it could either be divided into two finite parts or it could be divided into two equally infinite parts; both of them being impossible. This proves that there is only one infinite substance and Spinoza believes that to be God (13). Since God is infinite substance, every being in existence has its being in God and nothing can exist without God (9). He proves that God is infinite substance and that no other substance exists outside of God. Thus Spinoza claims that God is present in all things; God is omnipotent.
Spinoza argues that the will is the same as the intellect and in God, intellect is actual. God can think of infinite number of things in infinite number of ways. This infinite intellect of God comprehends all of God's attributes. All ideas are present in the intellect of God and the human mind is a part of the infinite intellect of God (13). Therefore, Spinoza maintains that ideas are adequate and true as long as they refer to God and reflect the essence of God. He also maintains that ideas that logically follow from such adequate ideas will remain adequate as well. Since adequate ideas must necessarily represent the essence of God, the idea of any substance's actual existence must also come from God. In this case, the human mind must be capable of knowing God and God's infinite essence.
Spinoza explains that the human mind may have both adequate and inadequate ideas. Adequate ideas are subject to reason whereas inadequate ideas are subject to emotions. There are three primary emotions from which all other emotions are derived - desire, pleasure and pain. Desire may arise from either pleasure or pain, pleasure arises from a transition from a lesser to a greater state of perfection and pain from a transition from greater to lesser state of perfection. For Spinoza, perfection is reality and since is God is absolutely perfect, he is also absolutely real (14).

Spinoza argues that knowledge of good and evil comes from awareness of what causes pleasure and pain. The greatest good of the mind and the greatest virtue it can hold is to know God. To act with virtue is to act with reason and freedom is the ability to act with reason. Freedom is the ability to act rationally and to control emotions; not to subject to emotions and make free undetermined choices. Spinoza agrees that all emotions need not conflict with reason. Emotions that compliment reason causes pleasure whereas pain is caused by emotions that conflict reason (12). Adequate ideas reflect the infinite essence of God and they are subject to reason. Acting with reason causes pleasure and spreads goodness to all. Inadequate ideas do not express the essence of God and thus, knowledge of evil is inadequate knowledge. Inadequate knowledge thus causes pain. According to Spinoza, reason can control emotions and to live freely one must not be in servitude to emotions. Reason is virtue and virtue is the knowledge of God and thus, Spinoza proves that the better control one exhibits over one's emotions, the better one can understand God (12). In Spinoza's view, all ideas are found in god and only those ideas that truly reflect the essence and knowledge of God are adequate and only those ideas provide freedom to the human mind.

Berkeley's book "Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous" is broken into three separate sections, or dialogues. Through the first dialogue he tries to ...Show more


Spinoza's "The Ethics" is written in five parts, in a highly logical style of definitions, propositions and proofs. Through his book, Spinoza describes God as an infinite eternal substance which exists (8). All things are made in accordance with the laws of the infinite nature of God…
Author : swhite
SpinozaBerkeley essay example
Read Text Preview
Save Your Time for More Important Things
Let us write or edit the essay on your topic
with a personal 20% discount.
Grab the best paper

Check these samples - they also fit your topic

The Role of New Media in Shaping the Image of Cultural Diversity in Britain of the 21st Century
Cultural variety is the quality of having miscellaneous or divergent cultures, as opposed to having a monoculture. Cultural diversity does not usually foster international monoculture or the homogenization of dissimilar cultures. This term can also describe different cultures valuing each other’s disparities.
10 pages (2500 words) Essay
Biblical Reference For the Catholic Mass
They act as a source of accurate and believable information that everyone with doubts needs. The Catholic Mass, for instance, is indeed all Jesus and all Biblical. Believably, the Mass serves as the most common and simplest Biblical way of worshiping God.
10 pages (2500 words) Term Paper
Masculinity Exhibited in Advertisements
A man could not be sold to a man. But the womanliness in man can be sold. The ad world has caught hold of this connotation in which they employ to promote sales of the sponsored products generally of male use through this technique. The reflection of lesbian and gay culture in advertisements is just the fall out of cultural implication on ad.
3 pages (750 words) Essay
A study on strategic management as a determinant of organization performance.(casestudy of coca cola plc)
This report deals with the importance of strategic management in every business organization and how business strategies determine the performances of an organization. Managers in any organization need strategies to solve the complicated problems that they have to cope with.
37 pages (9250 words) Dissertation
Sickle Cell Trait
The article describes the condition of Ryan Clark, safety of Pittsburgh Steelers and the reason why he has been restricted from playing in the upcoming game against the Denver Broncos. The writer has described the limitations a professional player has to face because of sickle cell trait and has also highlighted the underlying pathology of the blood disorder.
3 pages (750 words) Research Paper
Gun Control: Right to Handgun Ownership
The Second Amendment of the Constitution gives Americans the fundamental right to bear arms; however, it has many different interpretations, each of which has a different understanding of its original intention, scope, protection and meaning. In 1994,
10 pages (2500 words) Research Paper
Analyzation of literary devices as demonstrated in the lyrics of a song
That is why I chose to do this assignment based on the Katy Perry song “Firework”. It is a song that tells everyone who hears it “Dont believe what anybody says about you in a negative way. You are are always capable of more than what they try to
4 pages (1000 words) Essay
Financial Management for Small Business
An effective business car hire service lays out the perfect strategy to realise targets and objectives in relation to the plan (CAPLAN, 1999). By having the capability to read the agency’s future, it is practical to form feasible
11 pages (2750 words) Essay
Applying concepts
This requires in-depth and critical analysis of economic concepts surrounding outsourcing in regard to contemporary business management and success. It is also important to view this concept from the political relations between China and
2 pages (500 words) Essay
Metapopulation models
There is a steady decline in the population of the northern spotted owl in Oregon, Washington and California. The leading cause for its decay is the loss of vast woodlands in these areas. The northern spotted owl was registered as a vulnerable
3 pages (750 words) Essay
Hire a pro to write
a paper under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Your email
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment
Contact Us